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Table of Contents

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For The Transition Period FromTo

Commission file number: 001-41608

Structure Therapeutics Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Cayman Islands

    

98-1480821

(State of Other Jurisdiction of incorporation or Organization)

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

601 Gateway Blvd., Suite 900

South San Francisco, California

94080

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip code)

Registrant's telephone number, including area code: (650) 457-1978

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

    

Name Of Each Exchange

    

Title of Each Class

Trading Symbol(s)

On Which Registered

American Depositary Shares (ADSs), each representing three ordinary shares, par value $0.0001 per ordinary share

GPCR

Nasdaq Global Market

Ordinary shares, par value $0.0001 per share*

Nasdaq Global Market*

* Not for trading, but only in connection with the registration of the American Depositary Shares

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

Yes No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.

Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically; every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.0405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

    

Accelerated filer

    

Non-accelerated filer

    

Smaller reporting company

    

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to § 240.10D-1(b).

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No

The aggregate market value of the registrant’s ordinary shares held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2023, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, was approximately $501.7 million, based on the closing price of the registrant’s ordinary shares represented by ADSs on the Nasdaq Global Market of $41.57 per ADS. In determining the market value of the voting equity held by non-affiliates, ordinary shares of the registrant beneficially owned by each director and officer and each person who owns 10% or more of the registrant’s outstanding ordinary shares have been excluded. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.

The number of outstanding ordinary shares of the registrant, par value $0.0001 per share, as of February 29, 2024 was 139,794,124, of which 129,882,333 ordinary shares were held in the form of ADSs.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for its 2024 Annual General Meeting of Shareholders, which the registrant intends to file pursuant to Regulation 14A with the Securities and Exchange Commission not later than 120 days after the registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2023, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Part I

Item 1.

Business

6

Item 1A.

Risk Factors

67

Item 1B.

Unresolved Staff Comments

147

Item 1C.

Cybersecurity

147

Item 2.

Properties

148

Item 3.

Legal Proceedings

148

Item 4.

Mine Safety Disclosures

149

Part II

Item 5.

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

149

Item 6.

[Reserved]

158

Item 7.

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

159

Item 7A.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

170

Item 8.

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

171

Item 9.

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

205

Item 9A.

Controls and Procedures

205

Item 9B.

Other Information

207

Item 9C.

Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

207

Part III

Item 10.

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

208

Item 11.

Executive Compensation

208

Item 12.

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

208

Item 13.

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

208

Item 14.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

208

Part IV

Item 15.

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

209

Item 16.

Form 10–K Summary

214

Signatures

215

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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K (“Annual Report”), contains forward-looking statements. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this Annual Report are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as “may,” "can," “will,” “would,” “should,” “expect,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “could,” “intend,” “target,” “project,” “contemplate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential,” or “continue” or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions, although not all forward-looking statements contain these words. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this Annual Report, including without limitation statements regarding:

the timing, progress and results of preclinical studies and clinical trials for our product candidates, including our product development plans and strategies;
the impact of data collection omissions at any of our clinical sites;
the timing, scope and likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals, including final regulatory approval of our product candidates;
the potential benefits and market opportunity for our product candidates and discovery platform;
expectations regarding the size, scope and design of clinical trials;
our plans and strategy with respect to our drug discovery efforts and potential benefits of our discovery platform;
our manufacturing, commercialization, and marketing plans and strategies;
our plans to hire additional personnel and our ability to attract and retain such personnel;
our estimates of the number of patients who suffer from the diseases we are targeting and potential growth in our target markets;
our expectations regarding the approval and use of our product candidates;
our competitive position and the development and impact of competing therapies that are or may become available;
expectations regarding future events under collaboration and licensing agreements, including potential future payments, as well as our plans and strategies for entering into further collaboration and licensing agreements;
our intellectual property position, including the scope of protection we are able to establish and maintain for intellectual property rights covering product candidates we may develop, including the extensions of existing patent terms where available, the validity of intellectual property rights held by third parties, and our ability not to infringe, misappropriate or otherwise violate any third-party intellectual property rights;
the rate and degree of market acceptance and clinical utility of product candidates we may develop;
our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;
our future financial performance;
the period over which we estimate our existing cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments will be sufficient to fund our future operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements;
the impact of laws and regulations; and
the impact of geopolitical and macroeconomic factors.

The forward-looking statements in this Annual Report are only predictions and are based largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our financial

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condition, results of operations, business strategy, short-term and long-term business operations and objectives, and financial needs. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Annual Report and are subject to a number of known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and assumptions, including those described under Part I. Item 1A. “Risk Factors” and Part II. Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and elsewhere in this Annual Report. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks emerge from time to time. It is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make. In light of these risks, uncertainties, and assumptions, the future events and trends discussed in this Annual Report may not occur and actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements.

Because forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified, you should not rely upon these forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, performance, or achievements. The forward-looking statements made in this Annual report relate only to events or information as of the date on which the statements are made in this Annual Report. Except as required by applicable law, we do not plan to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements contained herein, whether as a result of any new information, future events, changed circumstances or otherwise. We intend the forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report to be covered by the safe harbor provisions for forward-looking statements contained in Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”).

SUMMARY RISK FACTORS

Our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, including those described in Part I. Item 1A. “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report. You should carefully consider these risks and uncertainties when investing in our American Depositary Shares (“ADSs”). The principal risks and uncertainties affecting our business include the following:

We have a limited operating history, have incurred significant operating losses since our inception and expect to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future.
We will require substantial additional capital to finance our operations, which may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all. Failure to obtain this necessary capital when needed may force us to delay, limit or terminate certain of our product development programs, commercialization efforts or other operations.
Our approach to the discovery of product candidates based on our technology platform is unproven, and we do not know whether we will be able to develop any products of commercial value.
We are early in our development efforts and only have two product candidates, GSBR-1290 and ANPA-0073, in early clinical development. All of our other development programs are in the preclinical or discovery stage. If we are unable to advance our product candidates in clinical development, obtain regulatory approval and ultimately commercialize our product candidates, or experience significant delays in doing so, our business will be materially harmed.
Clinical and preclinical drug development involves a lengthy and expensive process with uncertain timelines and outcomes. The results of prior clinical trials and preclinical studies are not necessarily predictive of future results, and may not be favorable, or receive regulatory approval on a timely basis, if at all.

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Any difficulties or delays in the commencement or completion, or termination or suspension, of our planned clinical trials could result in increased costs to us, delay or limit our ability to generate revenue and adversely affect our commercial prospects.
Serious adverse events (“SAEs”), undesirable side effects or other unexpected properties of our product candidates may be identified during development or after approval, which could lead to the discontinuation of our clinical development programs, refusal by regulatory authorities to approve our product candidates or, if discovered following marketing approval, revocation of marketing authorizations or limitations on the use of our product candidates, any of which would limit the commercial potential of such product candidate.
As an organization, we have never conducted later-stage clinical trials or submitted a New Drug Application (“NDA”), and may be unable to do so for any of our product candidates.
The marketing approval processes of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) and applicable foreign authorities are lengthy, time consuming, expensive and inherently unpredictable, and if we are ultimately unable to obtain marketing approval for our product candidates, our business will be substantially harmed.
We have conducted, or plan to conduct, our initial clinical studies for GSBR-1290, ANPA-0073, LTSE-2578 and our other product candidates outside of the United States. However, the FDA and other foreign equivalents may not accept data from such trials, in which case our development plans will be delayed, which could materially harm our business.
We rely on third parties for the manufacture of our product candidates for preclinical and clinical development and expect to continue to do so for the foreseeable future. This reliance on third parties increases the risk that we will not have sufficient quantities of our product candidates or products or such quantities at an acceptable cost, which could delay, prevent or impair our development or commercialization efforts.
Our current and anticipated future dependence upon others for the manufacture of our product candidates or drugs may adversely affect our future profit margins and our ability to commercialize any product candidates that receive marketing approval on a timely and competitive basis.
We rely on third parties to conduct, supervise and monitor our discovery research, preclinical studies and clinical trials. We have experienced delays due to actions of third parties in the past and if in the future third parties do not satisfactorily carry out their contractual duties or fail to meet expected deadlines, our development programs may be delayed or subject to increased costs, each of which may have an adverse effect on our business and prospects.
We have entered into, and may in the future enter into, collaboration agreements and strategic alliances to maximize the potential of our structure-based drug discovery platform and product candidates, and we may not realize the anticipated benefits of such collaborations or alliances. We expect to continue to form collaborations in the future with respect to our product candidates, but may be unable to do so or to realize the potential benefits of such transactions, which may cause us to alter or delay our development and commercialization plans.
Our existing discovery collaborations with Schrödinger, LLC (together with its affiliates, “Schrödinger”) are important to our business. If we are unable to maintain these collaborations, or if these collaborations are not successful, our business could be adversely affected.
We face substantial competition, which may result in others discovering, developing or commercializing products before or more successfully than us.

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We currently have no marketing and sales organization and have no experience as a company in commercializing products, and we may invest significant resources to develop these capabilities. If we are unable to establish marketing and sales capabilities or enter into agreements with third parties to market and sell our products, we may not be able to generate product revenue.
We conduct certain research and development operations through our Australian wholly-owned subsidiaries. If we lose our ability to operate in Australia, or if any of our subsidiaries are unable to receive the research and development tax credit allowed by Australian regulations, or are required to refund any research and development tax credit previously received or reserve for such credit in our financial statements, our business and results of operations could suffer.
Changes in the political and economic policies or in relations between China and the United States may affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and the market price of our ADSs.
If we are unable to obtain and maintain sufficient intellectual property protection for our platform technologies and product candidates, or if the scope of the intellectual property protection is not sufficiently broad, our competitors could develop and commercialize products similar or identical to ours, and our ability to successfully commercialize our products may be adversely affected.
We may rely on one or more in-licenses from third parties. If we lose these rights, our business may be materially adversely affected, and if disputes arise with one or more licensors, we may be subjected to future litigation as well as the potential loss of or limitations on our ability to develop and commercialize products and technologies covered by these license agreements.

PART I

Item 1. Business.

Overview

We are a clinical stage global biopharmaceutical company aiming to develop and deliver novel oral therapeutics to treat a wide range of chronic diseases with unmet medical need. Our differentiated technology platform leverages structure-based drug discovery and computational chemistry expertise and enables us to develop oral small molecule therapeutics for the treatment of various diseases including those impacting the metabolic, cardiovascular, and pulmonary systems. In February 2023, we completed our Initial Public Offering (“IPO”) for net proceeds of approximately $166.7 million, after deducting the underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. In September 2023, we entered into a share purchase agreement with certain institutional investors (the “Purchase Agreement”), pursuant to which we issued and sold an aggregate of 21,617,295 ordinary shares and 2,401,920 non-voting ordinary shares for net proceeds of approximately $281.5 million (the “Private Placement”).

Our initial focus is on G-protein coupled receptors (“GPCRs”) as a therapeutic target class. GPCRs regulate numerous diverse physiological and pathological processes, and approximately one in every three marketed medicines targets GPCR-associated pathways. By leveraging our world-class GPCR know-how, we aim to design differentiated small molecule therapies to overcome the limitations of biologics and peptide therapies targeting this family of receptors. We are developing GSBR-1290, our oral small molecule product candidate targeting the validated glucagon-like-peptide-1 receptor (“GLP-1R”) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (“T2DM”) and obesity. We completed our Phase 1 single ascending dose (“SAD”) study of GSBR-1290 in September 2022. GSBR-1290 was generally well tolerated and demonstrated dose- dependent pharmacokinetic (“PK”) and pharmacodynamic (“PD”) activity. We submitted an investigational new drug (“IND”) application to the FDA to support initiation of a Phase 1b study in T2DM and obesity and received FDA allowance in September 2022. We initiated the Phase 1b multiple ascending dose (“MAD”) study of

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GSBR-1290 in January 2023 and completed dosing in otherwise healthy overweight subjects in March 2023. In May 2023, we submitted a protocol amendment to the FDA and initiated dosing of the Phase 2a proof-of-concept study in T2DM and obesity. We reported topline data for the 28-day Phase 1b MAD study in September 2023, in which GSBR-1290 was generally well-tolerated with no adverse event (“AE”)-related discontinuations and demonstrated an encouraging safety profile and significant weight loss of up to 4.9% placebo-adjusted, supporting once-daily dosing. In December 2023, we reported clinically meaningful topline data from our Phase 2a T2DM cohort, interim results from our Phase 2a obesity cohort and topline data from a Japanese ethno-bridging study of GSBR-1290. These data demonstrated that GSBR-1290 was generally well-tolerated, with no treatment-related SAEs over 12 weeks, with only one participant discontinuing the study due to adverse events in the T2DM cohort and none in the obesity cohort. GSBR-1290 also showed significant reductions in weight in the obesity cohort at 8 weeks, and significant reductions in hemoglobin A1c (“HbA1c”) and weight in the T2DM cohort. We expect to report the full 12-week Phase 2a obesity data in the latter half of the second quarter of 2024 with additional 24 participant data. We also fully enrolled a formulation bridging and titration optimization study to evaluate capsule versus tablet PK and explore different titration regimens of GSBR-1290. We expect to report topline results from this study in the latter half of the second quarter of 2024, in preparation for the global Phase 2b study for obesity which we expect to initiate in the second half of 2024. A Phase 2 study in T2DM is also planned for the fourth quarter of 2024.

A number of GPCR properties contribute to its importance as a drug target class, including interaction with a diverse set of signaling molecules, involvement in a vast array of physiological and pathological processes, and cell surface expression that enables extracellular drug binding. As such, GPCRs have emerged as the largest family of targets for approved drugs, have provided significant benefit to patients and have achieved blockbuster sales in a number of therapeutic indications, including diabetes (Victoza), bipolar disorders (Abilify, Seroquel), asthma (Singulair), hypertension (Diovan, Lopressor), and cardiovascular disease (Plavix). Despite this success, there remain a number of challenges to continued innovation in this target class, including (i) low expression levels on cell surfaces, (ii) the complexity of the multi-subunit peptide GPCR receptor, (iii) difficulties in obtaining relevant crystal structures as a basis for drug design, and (iv) non-specific signaling through multiple intracellular signaling pathways, a concept known as non-biased signaling, which can limit activity and increase side effects. We have developed a platform designed to address these key challenges, enabling us to discover small molecule drugs to effectively target GPCRs. Further, our platform has been designed to develop novel drugs against other targets where traditional drug discovery methods have not been adequate.

Our next generation structure-based drug discovery platform is based on techniques that our founders have evolved for over 25 years, which enables us to generate small molecule product candidates designed to overcome the historical limitations of GPCR drug development. As shown below, we believe our insights and capability to visualize the three-dimensional protein structures of the target and the ligands combined with the computational chemistry capabilities of our co-founder and strategic partner, Schrödinger, give us significant competitive advantages in highly efficient and rational drug design. We design our novel compounds by combining our knowledge of GPCR structures together with advanced physics-based computational methods, which we believe allows us to predict the binding affinity of molecules to the target site with a high degree of accuracy.

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Advantages of GPCR oral small molecule therapeutic

Graphic

CHALLENGES

    

OPPORTUNITIES

 

Limited cellular and tissue permeability

Customizable pharmaceutic properties

Scalability and costs

Orally available, better patient compliance

Limited stability

No cold-chain requirements

Cold supply chain requirements

Lower costs

Higher costs

Large scale manufacturing capability

We believe the strengths of our platform position us to develop oral small molecule drugs that can deliver biologic-like activity and specificity. Oral small molecules can address many of the key limitations of biologic and peptide drugs, thereby significantly improving patient access. We believe this is particularly important for the most prevalent chronic diseases including those involving the metabolic, cardiovascular, and pulmonary systems.

Our lead product candidate, GSBR-1290, is an oral and biased small molecule agonist of GLP-1R, a validated GPCR drug target for T2DM and obesity, currently in Phase 2 development. There are currently ten marketed peptide molecules that target GLP-1R; collectively, these peptide therapies generated worldwide sales of $65 billion in 2023. However, there are currently no approved oral small molecule therapies targeting GLP-1R. In non-human primate (“NHP”), studies, GSBR-1290 demonstrated glucose-dependent insulin secretion and suppressed food intake, resulting in weight reduction. Given these findings and other compelling preclinical data, we completed a Phase 1 study in healthy volunteers for GSBR-1290 in September 2022, a Phase 2a study development in diabetes in December 2023 and expect to complete a Phase 2a study in obesity in the latter half of the second quarter of 2024. To date GSBR-1290 has demonstrated generally favorable safety, tolerability and efficacy results in clinical trials. Beyond GSBR-1290, we are developing next generation GLP-1R candidates, including dual GLP-1R/glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (“GIPR”) agonists and amylin agonists, each designed with customized properties to achieve additional benefit.

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We are also developing oral small molecule therapeutics targeting other GPCRs for the treatment of pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. Specifically, we are advancing ANPA-0073, our biased agonist, targeting the apelin receptor (“APJR,”) a GPCR that has been implicated in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (“IPF”). In September 2022, we completed a Phase 1 SAD and MAD study evaluating ANPA-0073 in healthy human volunteers, in which it was generally well tolerated. Additionally, we are developing an antagonist that targets lysophosphatidic acid 1 receptor (“LPA1R”), a GPCR implicated in responses to tissue injury and pro-fibrotic processes. We have demonstrated substantial anti-fibrotic activity of our LPA1R antagonists in mouse models of fibrotic lung disease and we selected a development candidate, LTSE-2578, in January 2023 and expect to initiate a first-in-human study in the second quarter of 2024.

We are also dedicated to fueling our pipeline and pursuing drug discovery partnerships. Through our discovery engine, we leverage the power of cryo-electron microscopy (“cryo-EM”) machine learning and X-ray crystallography, as the basis for our molecular designs. We employ state-of-the-art small molecule hit identification, including DNA encoded library technology and affinity mass spectrometry selections for membrane proteins.

Our Strategy

Our mission is to discover and develop broadly accessible oral therapeutics to treat a wide range of chronic diseases with unmet medical need through advancements in structure-based drug discovery and computational chemistry. The key pillars of our business strategy to achieve this mission include:

Invest in and leverage our next generation structure-based drug discovery platform to drive innovations in GPCR targeted therapies and beyond. Our platform has the potential to transform the treatment paradigm for a wide range of chronic diseases with unmet medical need. We are continually growing our position as a leader in structure-based drug discovery and development by incorporating platform innovations that have the potential to expand the therapeutic opportunity of this field. We are integrating advancements in computational chemistry, molecular imaging technologies, structural biology techniques, and machine learning while continuing to deepen our understanding of GPCR signaling pathways and pharmacology. We intend to expand into other key emerging areas where we can leverage our platform to develop orally-available molecules against targets that historically have been limited to peptides or biologics.
Advance our GLP-1R franchise of metabolic focused assets, establishing a foundation for additional opportunities. Our franchise approach involves developing next generation GLP-1R agonists, including dual GLP-1R/GIPR agonists, each designed with customized properties to achieve maximum benefit. Based on compelling data generated from our preclinical studies, we believe that our lead GLP-1R candidate, GSBR-1290, has the potential to be a differentiated treatment for T2DM and obesity. In obesity, we expect to complete the Phase 2a study in the latter half of the second quarter of 2024 and initiate a Phase 2b study in the fourth quarter of 2024. In T2DM, we have completed the Phase 2a study and expect to initiate a Phase 2 study in the second half of 2024. In addition, our next generation GLP-1R program is focused on the development of orally-available small molecules in combination with GLP-1R, including GIPR, amylin, as well as the APJR for selective or muscle-sparing weight loss.
Pursue additional opportunities in chronic diseases. Chronic diseases pose a major burden to patients and healthcare systems worldwide and there is an urgent need for effective and more accessible treatment options. Our APJR agonist product candidate, ANPA-0073 is in development for the treatment of cardiopulmonary and cardiometabolic conditions. In addition, we are evaluating LPA1R antagonism in IPF, and selected a development candidate (LTSE-2578) in January 2023 and expect to initiate a first-in-human study in the second quarter of 2024. We plan to continue to harness insights on GPCR targets, particularly among metabolic, endocrine, pulmonary, and cardiovascular indications, and leverage our platform to fuel our pipeline through our discovery engine at Basecamp Bio Inc. (“Basecamp Bio”).

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Maximize the potential of our platform and portfolio through strategic partnerships. We have established value- and capability-enhancing collaborations with Schrödinger, our co-founder and strategic partner. We intend to continue to explore additional collaborations with third parties to further strengthen our platform capabilities and enable expansion of our portfolio. We plan to leverage our platform for external opportunities where partners bring additional disease biology understanding, drug development and commercial expertise, regional insights, or other complementary capabilities.

Our Pipeline and Programs

We pursue opportunities to target GPCRs in human diseases on the basis of validated biology, safety, development feasibility and market potential. We are building a pipeline of wholly-owned oral small molecule drugs targeting chronic diseases with unmet medical need and commercial potential. Our initial focus is in areas of metabolic, cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases.

The following table summarizes key information on our current product candidates:

Graphic

Metabolic Diseases

We are initially advancing our GLP-1R franchise as a treatment for obesity and T2DM, conditions affecting approximately 764 million and 537 million people worldwide, respectively. We believe our GLP-1R programs have demonstrated qualities that offer the potential to differentiate them from current approved and development stage programs.

Selective GLP-1R Program. GSBR-1290 is a biased GLP-1R agonist which has demonstrated dose-dependent activation of the G-protein pathway. GSBR-1290 has also demonstrated glucose-dependent insulin secretion and suppressed food intake with similar activity to an approved injectable peptide GLP-1R agonist in preclinical models. The product candidate is designed to be orally administered, without restrictions on diet or concomitant therapy.
GLP-1R Combination. Our combination and next generation small molecule program is focused on GLP-1R candidates, including GLP-1R/GIPR agonists and amylin agonists, each designed with customized properties to achieve additional benefits like enhanced metabolic control. Our APJR agonist, ANPA-0073, is being evaluated for selective or muscle-sparing weight loss. ANPA-0073, is a G-protein biased APJR agonist for which we completed a Phase 1 SAD and MAD study, in which it was generally well tolerated as a single dose from 2mg to 600 mg, and at doses from 75 mg to 500 mg once daily dosing for seven days, with no SAEs reported.

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Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Diseases

We are evaluating our LPA1R program, LTSE-2578 for IPF and PPF.

Our LPA1R program, LTSE-2578, is an investigational oral small molecule LPA1R antagonist. We believe LTSE-2578 is a differentiated molecule because it demonstrated potent in vitro and in vivo activity in preclinical IPF models and dose dependent inhibition of histamine release as the PD marker. We plan to initiate a first-in-human study in the second quarter of 2024.

GPCRs as a Therapeutic Target Family

GPCRs form the largest human membrane protein family, consisting of approximately 800 identified members as illustrated below. GPCRs are involved in several vital physiological functions, such as immune system regulation and inflammation, autonomic nervous system transmission, behavioral and mood regulation, sensory transmission, and maintenance of homeostasis, making them important targets for numerous therapeutics. To date, there are approximately 475 drugs on the market acting at over 100 unique GPCRs. Additionally, more than 220 GPCRs have not yet been explored as clinical targets, hence representing broad untapped therapeutic potential for addressing global healthcare needs.

Phylogenetic tree of GPCR targets

Graphic

GPCR targeting drugs have successfully delivered significant patient benefit resulting in large market opportunities in many therapeutic areas. Examples include liraglutide (Victoza for T2DM), aripiprazole (Abilify for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression), montelukast (Singulair for asthma), valsartan (Diovan for hypertension), metoprolol (Lopressor for hypertension, angina, and myocardial infarction), and clopidogrel (Plavix for myocardial infarction and stroke). GPCR related drugs are the largest drug class accounting for approximately 27% of global pharmaceutical sales with estimated aggregate sales of $890 billion between 2011 and 2015.

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GPCRs are proteins that span the entire width of cell membranes. Their primary function is to recognize extracellular substances, primarily ligands, and transmit signals across the cell membrane to the inside of the cell.

Schematic of a GPCR

Graphic

As shown above, the binding of extracellular ligands to GPCRs elicits conformational changes that impact the intracellular side of the receptor, resulting in the formation of a GPCR complex with signal transducers, particularly G-proteins. These signal transducers go on to interact with second messengers, ultimately either stimulating or inhibiting certain cellular processes.

GPCRs signal not only through G-proteins, but also through β-arrestins and other non-G-protein transducers. Β-arrestins play an essential role in many physiological and pathological processes, and are involved in the desensitization, internalization, sequestration, and trafficking of GPCRs. Certain GPCR ligands are capable of simultaneously activating both G-protein and non-G-protein mediated signaling pathways, which can lead to a variety of physiologic as well as pathologic effects.

Challenges of GPCR Therapeutic Discovery and Development

Despite tremendous advancements in structure-based drug design and development, GPCR drug discovery and development remains challenging.

Similarity between the binding sites of GPCRs and related receptors can cause off-target toxicities: All GPCRs have the same overall three-dimensional architecture but the specific endogenous binding site is unique due to the placement of amino acid side chains shaping the binding site. For instance, the early sphingosine-1-phosphate 1 receptor (“S1P1R”) agonist Gilenya led to the development of a new class of therapy for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, but had exhibited bradycardia as a side effect due in part to sphingosine-1-phosphate 3 receptor (“S1P3R”) activity, a very closely related S1P1 receptor subtype. The next generation S1P1R agonist Zeposia was designed using structural information by Receptos, Inc. to remove the S1P3 and other activities and therefore did not have the same side effect profile as Gilenya.
GPCRs are involved in diverse downstream signaling pathways which can result in side effects: GPCRs interact with a range of molecules, including G-protein and non-G-protein

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transducers including β-arrestin. Signaling pathway selectivity results from agonist-induced specific receptor conformation and when targeting GPCRs involved in multiple signaling pathways, both therapeutic benefits and side effect issues may arise.
Expression levels of GPCRs are low and create significant hurdles to structural and PD characterization:  Recombinant protein expression of GPCRs remains extremely challenging. Expression levels of GPCRs are low and improvement of expression level continues to be mainly empirical and resource-consuming. GPCRs are complex membrane proteins that require a stable membrane environment throughout the purification process to avoid destabilization and aggregation.
GPCR structural visualization is complex making GPCR structure-based drug discovery challenging: Structure-based drug design requires rapid iterations of GPCR structures in complex with specific new ligands to determine their effects on conformation. This is well established through robust crystallography platforms for soluble drug targets. Cryo-EM has helped accelerate the membrane protein field, but the methods still require substantial expertise and execution.

Drug discovery approaches targeting GPCRs have evolved from traditional approaches including high throughput screening to rational design for enhanced activity, tailor-made signaling response, and improved selectivity, which leads to improved safety and tolerability profiles.

Our Platform and Approach

Our platform is based on techniques that our founders have been evolving for over 25 years, which have enabled them to deliver multiple marketed medicines. Our approach enables us to generate small molecule product candidates that are designed to overcome the historical limitations of GPCR drug development.

Our insights and capabilities enable us to visualize the three-dimensional protein structures of the target and the ligands. We believe this visualization combined with the computational chemistry capabilities of Schrödinger gives us significant competitive advantages in highly efficient and rational drug design. We design our novel compounds by combining our knowledge of GPCR structures together with advanced physics-based computational methods, which we believe allows us to predict the binding affinity of molecules to the target site with a high degree of accuracy.

As shown below, our technology platform allows us to determine feasibility, optimize the design of, and efficiently generate families of potent and highly selective small molecule candidates.

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Structure Therapeutics integrated technology platform from target to IND

Graphic

Oral small molecules have the potential to address the key limitations of biologic and peptide drugs, such as high cost and patient inconvenience, thereby significantly improving patient access. We believe this is particularly important for the most prevalent chronic diseases including those involving the endocrine, cardiovascular, and pulmonary systems. We believe the strengths of our technology platform will enable us to develop oral small molecule drugs that can deliver biologic-like activity and specificity.

Strategic GPCR Target Prioritization

We start with target prioritization by focusing on validated GPCR targets that do not have attractive small molecule solutions. We then prioritize by assessing the feasibility of a small molecule solution for these targets and market opportunities of their respective target indication.

Expertise in GPCR Structure-Based Drug Discovery

GPCRs are difficult to characterize structurally because they are composed of seven transmembrane domains, have low expression, and are unstable outside of the cell membrane environment. While structure-based approaches have been utilized for decades in soluble protein drug discovery, recent breakthrough advancements in computational chemistry, artificial intelligence, machine learning and electron microscopy are redefining the field of GPCR structure-based drug discovery.

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Visualization of GPCR Structure and binding site interactions

Graphic

As shown above, our structure-based technology platform combines direct visualization of protein receptor binding interactions with advanced simulation of molecular motion and signal transduction. Site 1 is considered to be the orthosteric or primary binding site for receptor activation. Site 2 is on the surface of the receptor, often referred to as the allosteric site and may potentially regulate receptor activation signaling. By visualizing and analyzing how different ligands bind to a particular target and specific sites and affect their conformational dynamics, we believe we are able to efficiently convert biologics and peptides into more accessible, patient-accommodating oral small molecules. In addition, we can enhance the pharmaceutic properties of our small molecules with the aim to elicit the desired function while maintaining superior pharmaceutical properties.

Non-biased vs biased GPCR agonists

Graphic

Additionally, GPCR signaling can follow several pathways and molecules can be designed such that their pharmacology is selected to create “biased signaling” as illustrated above. GPCRs are known to signal not only through G-proteins, but also through β-arrestins, intracellular proteins that “arrest” the signal and stop the receptor from becoming over-stimulated through a receptor internalization mechanism. Using the three-dimensional structures of GPCRs and selection methods, we can potentially design highly selective “biased”

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molecules that preferentially activate G-protein and not β-arrestin pathways, which could lead to enhanced clinical activity as well as an improved safety profile due to lower dosage requirements.

GPCR Experience

Robust and Integrated Medicinal Chemistry to Generate and Optimize Hits on GPCR Targets

We have extensive medicinal chemistry know-how on the discovery and development of novel molecules that target GPCRs. When coupled with our deep understanding of GPCR biology, we have the potential to design appropriate chemotypes for each GPCR function as illustrated below.

Family members with determined structures are

highlighted within the tree, and their binding pockets with the ligand

Graphic

Four character code at end of each image is Protein Data Bank ID.

Further optimization of compounds powered by our excellence in medicinal chemistry lead us to identify potent and selective oral small molecule product candidates.

Partnership with Schrödinger Leveraging its Cutting-Edge Computational Chemistry Capability

We have collaborations with Schrödinger on the iteration and optimization of GPCR lead compounds using various next-generation physics-based computational technologies. Schrödinger is a scientific leader in chemical simulation, accurate physics-based methods, which includes among many technologies, Free Energy Perturbation (“FEP”) and in silico drug discovery. Its computational platforms integrate predictive physics-based methods with machine learning to evaluate billions of compounds in silico, achieving experimental accuracy on properties such as binding affinity and solubility. Through this iterative process, we can accelerate evaluation and optimization of molecules in silico ahead of synthesis and assay, and then further optimize them through additional cycles of computation analysis.

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Structure Therapeutics Integrated Platform

Graphic

As shown above, our collaborations with Schrödinger in our computational and chemistry module enables us to accelerate our lead optimization drug discovery process and reduce development costs. In our partnership with Schrödinger on GPCR drug discovery, we retain the full product rights on the compounds under development.

Safety Assays

We have proactively used cell and animal-based safety assays to better screen out unwanted side effects, such as liver, cardiovascular and central nervous system toxicity at the initial stages of lead optimization, and we have designed molecules to help minimize safety risks at every step. Our in-depth understanding of GPCR signaling pathway provide us insights to design biased molecules when necessary to mitigate any unwanted liabilities while maintaining the desired activities.

Other Proprietary In-House Development Tools for Drug Synthesis and Screening

Basecamp Bio focuses specifically on technology development and early discovery and continues to innovate new methods, particularly in hit discovery.

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Basecamp Bio early discovery

Graphic

In addition to our robust iterative structure-based drug discovery platform shown above, Basecamp Bio is optimizing proprietary in-house drug discovery tools including DNA-Encoded Library technology and Affinity Mass Spectrometry technology to enable the synthesis and screening of vast numbers of small molecule product candidates at a scale that is not possible to achieve by traditional methods.

Our Lead GPCR Programs

By leveraging our unique platform capabilities, we are building a pipeline of oral small molecule product candidates designed to have patient impact and broad commercial opportunity in therapeutic areas traditionally dominated by biologics and peptide medicines. We are initially focusing on chronic metabolic, cardiovascular, and pulmonary diseases with unmet medical need.

Our GLP-1R Focused Franchise for Metabolic Disorders

To unlock the full potential of our drug discovery platform across a broad range of metabolic indications, we intend to build out our franchise approach for GLP-1R. Our franchise approach involves developing next generation GLP-1R candidates, with each exhibiting customized properties to achieve additional benefit. Our lead GLP-1R product candidate, GSBR-1290, has the potential to be a differentiated treatment for T2DM and obesity based on preclinical data.

GSBR-1290 is an oral and biased agonist of the GLP-1R, a validated GPCR drug target involved in a variety of metabolic conditions. We completed a Phase 1 SAD study for GSBR-1290 in healthy volunteers in September 2022. We initiated the Phase 1b MAD study in January 2023 and completed dosing in otherwise healthy overweight subjects in March 2023. In May 2023, we submitted a protocol amendment to the FDA and initiated dosing of the Phase 2a proof-of-concept study in T2DM and obesity. We reported topline data for the 28-day Phase 1b MAD study in September 2023, in which GSBR-1290 was generally well-tolerated with no adverse event-related discontinuations and demonstrated an encouraging safety profile and significant weight loss of up to 4.9% placebo-adjusted, supporting once-daily dosing. In December 2023, we reported clinically meaningful topline data from our Phase 2a T2DM cohort, interim results from our Phase 2a obesity cohort and topline data from our Japanese ethno-bridging study of GSBR-1290. These data demonstrated

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that GSBR-1290 was generally well-tolerated, with no treatment-related SAEs over 12 weeks, with only one participant discontinuing the study due to adverse events in the T2DM cohort and none in the obesity cohort. GSBR-1290 also showed significant reduction in weight in the obesity cohort, and significant reductions in HbA1c and weight in the T2DM cohort. We expect to report the full 12-week Phase 2a obesity data in the latter half of the second quarter of 2024 with additional 24 participant data. We also fully enrolled a formulation bridging and titration optimization study to evaluate capsule versus tablet PK and explore different titration regimens of GSBR-1290. This study is expected to be completed in the latter half of the second quarter of 2024, in preparation for the global Phase 2b study for obesity which we expect to initiate in the fourth quarter of 2024. A Phase 2 study in T2DM is also planned for the second half of 2024. Based on our preclinical and clinical data, we believe that GSBR-1290 and our next-generation product candidates have the potential to have highly differentiated profiles versus currently approved therapies and those in development.

Diabetes Disease Background

Diabetes mellitus (“DM”) is an endocrine related disorder of glucose regulation with subsequent hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar, which develops following pancreatic β-cell destruction or dysfunction resulting in severe loss of insulin production, also known as type 1 diabetes, or β-cell dysfunction and loss of insulin sensitivity, also known as T2DM. T2DM is more common in adults and accounts for around 90% of all diabetes cases. In T2DM, the loss of insulin sensitivity is often preceded by being overweight or obese, and manifests along with hypertension and dyslipidemia. Regardless of etiology, once hyperglycemia develops, patients with diabetes share a common disease course characterized by atherosclerotic diseases such as coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease and/or, microvascular diseases such as nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Additionally, hyperglycemia is associated with metabolic dysfunction, chronic inflammation, and an increase in infections.

According to the 2021 International Diabetes Federation Diabetes Atlas, more than one in ten adults are now living with diabetes globally. The estimated prevalence of diabetes in adults aged 20 to 79 years has more than tripled since 2000, from an estimated 151 million (4.6% of the global population in this age group at the time) to 537 million (10.5%) today. If trends continue, the number will jump to a staggering 783 million (12.2%) by 2045. The number of adults with diabetes in the United States reached 32.2 million in 2021, while China has the largest numbers of adults with diabetes at 140.9 million. In 2021, approximately 6.7 million adults aged 20 to 79 are estimated to have died as a result of diabetes or its complications. According to American Diabetes Association (“ADA”), the total estimated cost of diagnosed diabetes in the United States increased to $327 billion in 2017, which included $237 billion in direct medical costs and $90 billion in reduced productivity.

In newly diagnosed T2DM patients, treatment is focused on improving modifiable risk factors such as obesity, low physical activity and high caloric diet through patient education that includes instruction on maintaining a healthy lifestyle including nutritional counseling, avoiding excessive calories and rapidly absorbed carbohydrates, and physical exercise. Patients who are unable to achieve glycemic control through weight loss and/or lifestyle modifications should be started on single or combination glucose-lowering medications to lower their glycemic burden and reduce the risk of cardiovascular and other complications.

Obesity Disease Background

Obesity, defined as a body mass index (“BMI”) of > 30 kg/m2, is a major independent risk factor for T2DM. Approximately 90% of T2DM patients are considered either overweight with a BMI between 25.0 kg/m2 and 29.9 kg/m2, or obese with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or greater. Worldwide obesity has nearly tripled between 1975 and 2016. As of 2020, 1.9 billion (39%) adults were overweight, including over 764 million (15%) adults who were obese. In men, being slightly overweight increased diabetes risk seven-fold and in women, being slightly overweight increased diabetes risk twelve-fold. Being obese increased the risk to 60-fold.

Obesity affects nearly one third of all adults in the United States and is associated with a range of comorbidities, such as T2DM, cardiovascular disease, obstructive sleep apnea, and cancer. Importantly, even

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modest weight reduction, on the order of five to ten percent, can significantly reduce comorbidities and improve health-related outcomes and has been recently recommended by the major scientific societies (European Association of the Study of Diabetes (“EASD”) and ADA). Obesity therefore represents an immense commercial opportunity with very few approved therapies on the market. The GLP-1R agonist semaglutide, approved for use in T2DM, has also been approved for weight management for which it is marketed under the brand name Wegovy, which is estimated to reach peak sales of $6.7 billion in 2026.

Relationship Between T2DM and Obesity

T2DM and obesity are not independent conditions, as the majority of patients with T2DM are obese. Observed increases in the prevalence of T2DM are related to the increasing prevalence of obesity and multiple mechanisms have been proposed through which they may be linked pathophysiologically. Upper body and visceral fat are associated with T2DM, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Obesity is a major contributor to poor metabolic control in patients with T2DM.

Increasingly, weight reduction is seen as an important goal of therapy for patients with T2DM. Weight loss in the first year of treatment of T2DM has been associated with an increase in life expectancy. According to the ADA Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2022, management of obesity is an important factor in the treatment of diabetes since even a small degree of weight loss can improve control of blood sugar levels, resulting in a decreased need for glucose-lowering medications. Given this information, a therapy that can both lower blood glucose and help with weight management in T2DM could have near-term benefits in glycemic control and longer-term benefits in increased insulin sensitivity and reduction of cardiovascular risk.

Current Treatments for T2DM and Obesity

First-line treatment for patients with T2DM involves lifestyle modifications and metformin. If glycemic control remains inadequate, an additional oral glucose lowering medication should be added. Options include sodium-glucose transport protein 2 inhibitors, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and GLP-1R agonists. Current treatment algorithms suggest that GLP-1R agonists should be preferentially used after metformin failure in patients who are at high risk for, or who have established, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Several scientific societies, including the EASD and ADA, recommend GLP-1R agonists as first line therapy in patients with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease or in those at high risk of developing disease. According to Global Data, Eli Lilly and Company (“Eli Lilly”), Novo Nordisk, Merck and Sanofi S.A. (“Sanofi”), have captured significant market share in the approximately $65.4 billion market for glucose-lowering agents in 2023, which is projected to grow to $115.4 billion by 2027 as depicted below.

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Historical and projected global obesity and type-2 diabetes drug sales by class

Graphic

Overview of GLP-1R Signaling Pathway and Target Biology

GLP-1 is an incretin peptide secreted in the intestinal tract in response to food intake. GLP-1 stimulates insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells and inhibits glucagon secretion from pancreatic α-cells. GLP-1 receptors are located on various cell and tissue types including pancreatic β-cells, central and peripheral neurons, cells of the intestinal tract, vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, coronary arteries, and the sino-atrial node of the heart. Through actions at these receptors, GLP-1 and GLP-1R agonists have demonstrated widespread therapeutic effects in patients with diabetes, including stimulating insulin secretion and lowering blood glucose levels, slowing gastric emptying, reducing caloric intake, promoting weight loss, improving lipoprotein metabolism, lowering systolic blood pressure, improving complications from arteriosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, and reducing cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality, as illustrated below.

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GLP-1R pathway and target biology

Graphic

Endogenous GLP-1 is rapidly degraded in vivo by DPP-4, with a half-life of one to two minutes. The development of GLP-1R agonists for the treatment of diabetes and obesity has involved modifications to the GLP-1 peptide and/or conjugation to carrier compounds or matrices that delay degradation after subcutaneous administration.

The six marketed GLP-1R and GLP-1R/GIPR agonists are synthetic peptides and include liraglutide and semaglutide marketed by Novo Nordisk; dulaglutide and tirzepatide marketed by Eli Lilly; exenatide marketed primarily by AstraZeneca plc (“AstraZeneca”); and lixisenatide marketed by Sanofi. According to Global Data, these six GLP-1R and GLP-1R/GIPR peptides approved for T2DM and obesity collectively generated approximately $65.4 billion in worldwide sales in 2023, which is projected to reach $115 billion by 2027.

Rybelsus is an oral formulation of semaglutide co-formulated with sodium N-8-(2-hydroxybenzoyl) amino caprylate to limit degradation and improve oral absorption. To date, there are no approved oral small molecule therapies targeting this pathway.

Common side effects of GLP-1R and GLP-1R/GIPR agonists include nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, which are most pronounced when starting therapy or increasing the dose. Generally, these effects correlate with times of maximum drug concentrations and ameliorate with continued therapy. Typically, slow up-titration to the desired dose can mitigate these side effects. However, once-weekly injectable GLP-1R and GLP-1R/GIPR agonists typically require a long titration period to achieve an optimal dose, potentially delaying therapeutic benefit. Once-daily therapy with an oral small molecule may provide flexibility in titration and allow a combined approach with other oral therapies.

The Unmet Medical Need for Improved GLP-1R Therapeutics in Diabetes and Obesity

GLP-1R agonists provide multiple beneficial effects in patients with T2DM, including excellent glycemic control with low risk of hypoglycemia, weight loss and protection against cardiovascular and renal complications. However, we believe approved GLP-1R agonists have shortcomings in terms of patient convenience, ease of dosing, and cost.

Injectable peptide GLP-1R agonist peptides require patients to self-inject, require inconvenient refrigerated storage and are costly. In addition, long acting GLP-1R agonists typically require long titration periods to

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reach an optimal dose for disease management in order to avoid treatment-associated gastrointestinal side effects.

Oral semaglutide (Rybelsus), the first approved oral GLP-1R peptide agonist, provides an option for patients who are unable or unwilling to self-administer. However, Rybelsus requires a stringent dosing protocol and dosing with up to four ounces of water with no food or beverage within 30 minutes. Additionally, the product’s absorption enhancer may affect the absorption of other concomitantly administered oral medications.

We believe there is an unmet medical need for orally administered GLP-1R agonists that meet or exceed efficacy and safety parameters of available drugs with less stringent preparation requirements. Such existing constraints include restrictive food or fluid dosing protocols, refrigeration, maintenance of effective concentrations throughout the dosing interval, without interfering with the absorption of concomitant medications and that offer the potential for combination products with other glucose lowering agents or other commonly co-administered therapies.

In addition to glycemic control, weight management is increasingly viewed as important to the management of T2DM. Injectable GLP-1R agonists, liraglutide and semaglutide result in weight loss at doses approved for treatment of T2DM, while higher doses of each drug, indicated for chronic weight management, result in greater weight loss. At an appropriate dose, an oral GLP-1R agonist may play a role in managing both blood glucose and weight.

Our Solution: Small Molecule GLP-1R Agonist

GLP-1, along with GIPR, comprise the incretin family, peptide hormones secreted into the blood by enteroendocrine cells in the gut, which play a role in glycemic control. We are taking a franchise approach to our GLP-1R programs by developing next generation GLP-1 agonists and potential GIPR modulators. Leveraging the depth of our GLP-1R/GIPR structure platform, proprietary compound library and deep biology and disease insights, we are advancing multiple generations of structurally distinct GLP-1R agonist molecules through lead optimization. Each molecule is designed to have a different tissue penetration profile and other incretin activities in order to maximize the value and/or realize the full potential offered by our in-house platform.

GSBR-1290 Selective GLP-1R Agonist Program

We are developing GSBR-1290, a biased orally-available small molecule GLP-1R agonist, initially as a treatment for T2DM and obesity. Due to its significant preclinical activity and oral availability, we believe that GSBR-1290 has the potential to be a differentiated treatment with no restrictions on diet or concomitant therapies.

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GSBR-1290 analog bound GLP-1R cryo-EM structure

Graphic

GSBR-1290 was designed through our internal structure-based drug discovery platform. As shown above, multiple small molecules bound to GLP-1R structures have been generated to guide iterative chemistry design efforts. GSBR-1290 is also designed to be a biased GPCR agonist, which only activates the G-protein pathway without β-arrestin signaling at therapeutic doses, thereby avoiding receptor internalization and de-sensitization. In an intravenous glucose tolerance test (“ivGTT”) in NHPs, GSBR-1290 increased glucose-dependent insulin secretion to a similar level achieved by liraglutide, an approved injectable GLP-1R agonist. In a repeat food intake study in NHPs, GSBR-1290 showed a significant decrease in body weight relative to the placebo and surpassed that seen with liraglutide.

GSBR-1290 Preclinical Data, Pharmacology, and Biomarker Data

In NHP ivGTT studies, glucose was injected five minutes following intravenous administration of either GSBR-1290 (0.05 mg/kg) or liraglutide (0.1 mg/kg). Plasma samples were taken at indicated timepoints to evaluate insulin and glucose levels. GSBR-1290 demonstrated statistically significant decreases in blood glucose concentration via stimulation of insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner, similar to liraglutide which was dosed at an equivalent approved human dose.

Robust activity in non-human primate acute ivGTT studies

Graphic

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Data were presented as mean ± standard error of the mean (“SEM”); one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s multiple comparisons test. *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001 vs vehicle

As shown below, in a seven day repeat oral dosing study in NHPs, GSBR-1290 was evaluated at once-daily oral doses of 2 mg/kg, 6 mg/kg, and 10 mg/kg and compared to placebo and liraglutide. Food intake was measured each day over the first six days of the study and reported as an average of these measurements. ivGTT and body weight were performed before dosing and on the sixth day (body weight) or seventh day (ivGTT) of post-dosing. At all doses of GSBR-1290, glucose reduction was shown to be statistically significantly different versus vehicle and comparable to liraglutide. Similarly, all doses increased insulin secretion significantly except at 6 mg/kg dose, which only achieved statistical p value at 0.055 due to a slightly greater data variability. At 6 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, a statistically significant reduction of average food intake measured over the first six days of the study compared to vehicle was observed. At 10 mg/kg of GSBR-1290, the average food intake from Day 1 to Day 6 was only 59% relative to liraglutide group. GSBR-1290 at 6 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg also showed a significant decrease in body weight relative to placebo and surpassed liraglutide, with the highest dose of GSBR-1290 achieving more than eight percent reduction in average body weight versus baseline in one week.

Seven day repeat oral dosing study in non-human primates

Graphic

Data were presented as mean ± SEM; one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s multiple comparisons test.

*p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001 vs vehicle

In the description of our clinical trials and preclinical studies below and elsewhere in this Annual Report, n represents the number of participants in a particular group and p or p-values represent the probability that random chance caused the result (e.g., a p-value of 0.01 means that there is a 0.1% probability that the difference between the placebo group and the treatment group is purely due to random chance). A p-value of less than or equal to 0.05 is a commonly used criterion for statistical significance, and may be supportive of a finding of efficacy by regulatory authorities.

In addition, we conducted a preclinical comparison study of GSBR-1290 and PF-06882961, a clinical stage compound in development by Pfizer. Unlike GSBR-1290, PF-06882961 is a partially biased GLP-1R agonist, which could lead to de-sensitization of the receptor in vivo. In an experiment conducted in-house, GSBR-1290 demonstrated comparable in vivo activity to PF-06882961 at a lower exposure. In the acute ivGTT studies, GSBR-1290 achieved similar activity to liraglutide at average concentration around 34 nanomolar (“nM”) (0.05 mg intravenous), comparing to a similar activity achieved by PF-06882961 in an in-house experiment at an average concentration around 442 nM (0.3 mg intravenous). This suggests that the concentration needed to achieve full activity for GSBR-1290 is at a level much lower than that for PF-06882961. PF-06882961 has been studied in SAD and MAD studies with a maximum dose of 200 mg/BID to achieve maximum HbA1c activity and weight management.

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In-house data showed that PF-06882961 was positive in a glutathione trapping assay. GSBR-1290 was inactive in this assay, suggesting reduced risks with long-term use. In addition, GSBR-1290 also did not show activity as a time dependent inhibitor (“TDI”) for cytochrome P450 3A4 (“CYP3A4”). PF-06882961 was reported as a CYP3A4 TDI, which, if confirmed in clinical trials, suggests the potential for interactions with the 30–50% of marketed drugs metabolized through this pathway.

GSBR-1290 Phase 1 Healthy Volunteer Trial

In September 2022, we completed a first-in-human Phase 1 SAD study for GSBR-1290 in 48 healthy adult volunteers between the ages of 18 and 55. The objective was to assess drug safety, tolerability and PK. The study enrolled six cohorts of eight participants assigned to receive a single dose of GSBR-1290 or placebo in a 3:1 ratio. Doses ranged from 1 mg to 90 mg across the six cohorts. The fourth cohort received 15 mg administered either under a fed condition, which consisted of a standardized high fat breakfast, and under a fasted condition, in each case to characterize the effect of food on the PK of GSBR-1290. A schema of our Phase 1 SAD study is presented below:

Schema of our GSBR-1290 Phase 1 SAD study in healthy volunteers

Graphic

GSBR-1290 Phase 1 PK and PD Data in Healthy Volunteers

In the study, PK parameters of systemic exposure, Cmax and AUC, increased with doses of GSBR-1290 across the dose range from 1 mg to 90 mg GSBR-1290. GSBR-1290 exhibited supra dose proportionality from 1 mg to 30 mg followed by less than dose-proportional from 30 mg to 90 mg.

The 30mg dose AUC provided more than double the effective AUC0-24h required for glycemic control, derived from non-human primate PK/PD data. Food intake (high fat meal) was associated with a ~36% decrease in the geometric mean Cmax but no significant change in mean AUC value, with 80% relative bioavailability, based on AUC compared with the fasted state.

Graphic

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GSBR-1290 Phase 1 Safety Data in Healthy Volunteers

GSBR-1290 was shown to be generally well tolerated at all dose levels administrated in this Phase 1 SAD study.

No SAEs and no adverse changes in laboratory tests (including hematology, chemistry and coagulation) were observed. No trial stopping criteria were met. Adverse events (“AEs”) did not result in any early terminations or subject discontinuations from participation in this study.

Treatment-emergent AEs (“TEAEs”) were reported for 32 of 36 participants (89%) following fasted administration of GSBR-1290 and for 7 of 12 participants (58%) following administration of placebo, with a total of 109 TEAEs.

Following administration of GSBR-1290 in the fasted state, most TEAEs were classified as mild (69 of 109, or 63% of all TEAEs) in severity, with 34 TEAEs (31% of all TEAEs) classified as moderate in severity. Six TEAEs (6%) were classified as severe, including four events of vomiting, one event of nausea and one event of catheter site infection. There was an apparent dose-related trend in the severity of TEAEs following single doses of GSBR-1290, with severe TEAEs reported following the 60 mg and 90 mg doses of GSBR-1290, but not following low doses (1 mg, 10 mg, 15 mg). Occurrences in TEAEs of moderate intensity were also higher following higher dose range of GSBR-1290.

The following table shows an overall summary of TEAEs that were reported in the study.

Graphic

Low dose GSBR-1290 includes 1 mg, 10 mg and 15 mg fasted and high dose GSBR-1290 includes 30 mg, 60 mg and 90 mg fasted.

If a participant had multiple occurrences of a TEAE, the participant was presented only once in the Participant count for a given Preferred Term. Occurrences were counted each time.

There was no notable difference in the overall incidence or severity of treatment-related AEs under fasted and fed administration of GSBR-1290 at a dose level of 15 mg. There was a higher incidence of related TEAEs of vomiting and headache following fasted administration (three of six participants, or 50%) compared to fed administration (one of six participants, or 17%).

The most common TEAEs reported in at least four of 36 participants (>10%) who received GSBR-1290 were nausea, headache, vomiting, dehydration, decreased appetite, dizziness, and diarrhea.

Across the various dose levels, there were apparent dose-related trends in the overall incidence of common TEAEs. The incidence of the TEAEs described above was notably higher following fasted administration of the high dose GSBR-1290 treatments (30 mg, 60 mg, 90 mg) than the low dose GSBR-1290 treatments (1

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mg, 10 mg, 15 mg) and placebo, with a similar observation in treatment-related AEs of nausea, vomiting, dehydration, and headache of at least moderate severity.

We believe all TEAEs observed during the study are in line with the proposed treatment mechanism and typically derive from impacts on appetite, nausea, and vomiting. There was an apparent increasing trend in heart rate over time in both low (1 mg, 10 mg, 15 mg) and high dose (30 mg, 60 mg, 90 mg) GSBR-1290 groups. This increase appeared to peak at 12 hours post-dose and was notably larger in the high dose GSBR-1290 groups. Increases in heart rate over time were observed in the pooled placebo group but to a much lesser extent.

In summary, GSBR-1290 was shown to be generally well tolerated when administered as a single dose of up to 90 mg. However, there were dose-related trends in the incidence, severity and causality of TEAEs, particularly GI related TEAEs, consistent with what has been previously reported in clinical trials involving the GLP-1RA class of drugs. There were no treatment-related AEs reported in patients who received placebo.

PK parameters of systemic exposure increased with dose of GSBR-1290 across the dose range from 1 mg to 90 mg GSBR-1290.

GSBR-1290 Non-clinical Safety Pharmacology and Toxicology Studies

A standard battery of nonclinical safety pharmacology studies (central nervous system, cardiovascular and respiratory) has been completed with GSBR-1290 with no findings anticipated to be of clinical relevance. Genotoxicity assessments demonstrated an absence of genotoxicity potential.

In the 4-week and 13-week GLP toxicology study in rats, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (“NOAEL”) dose was considered to be 1000 mg/kg/day, the highest dose tested. In the 4-week and 13-week GLP toxicology study in NHPs, GSBR-1290 showed pharmacologically related events such as inappetence and bodyweight loss, which were reversible with sufficient recovery periods. There were no GSBR-1290-related deaths during the course of study and no GSBR-1290-related changes in organ weights, gross and histopathology examinations at the end of the dosing and recovery periods. In the 13-week study, NHPs of both sexes in all dose groups, including in the control group, had minimal to moderate multifocal necrosis/infiltration in the liver. The root cause of these liver abnormalities was not determined, but these findings were considered unrelated to GSBR-1290. The FDA reviewed our 13-week GLP toxicology studies in rats and NHPs and agreed that these liver abnormalities were not considered a new non-clinical safety signal related to GSBR-1290.

In nonclinical animal models, GSBR-1290 demonstrated statistically significant decreases in blood glucose concentration and increases of insulin secretion.

In a recent 6-month GLP toxicology study in rats, GSBR-1290 demonstrated a NOAEL dose at 1000 mg/kg/day, which supports an estimated more than 100 fold safety window up to 120 mg human dose. We also conducted a 9-month non-human primate (NHP) GLP toxicology study and found no test article-related change in heart rates or QTc intervals. No meaningful increases in the liver enzymes, ALT/AST, were observed in either the rat or NHP study. There were no significant findings in embryo-fetal developmental toxicology studies in rats and rabbits.

GSBR-1290 Phase 1b MAD study

The Phase 1b MAD study focused on the safety and tolerability of GSBR-1290 in 24 healthy overweight or obese individuals. Participants were randomized 3:1 to GSBR-1290 or placebo across three dose cohorts with target doses of 30mg, 60mg or 90mg.

GSBR-1290 demonstrated reductions in mean body weight ranging up to 4.9 kg compared to baseline, and up to 4.9% placebo-adjusted.

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Graphic

Graphic

Percent Weight Change from Baseline to Day 28

Placebo 
(n=5)

GSBR-1290 
30 mg 
(n=6)

GSBR-1290 
60 mg 
(n=6)

GSBR-1290 
90 mg 
(n=5)

% weight change from baseline

-0.5%

-1.6%

-5.2%

-5.4%

% weight change placebo-adjusted
(90% CI)

-1.1%
(-3.8 to 1.7)

-4.6%
(-6.6 to -2.7)

-4.9%
(-7.8 to -1.9)

Exploratory p-value vs. placebo

0.494

0.002

0.013

GSBR-1290 demonstrated an encouraging safety and tolerability profile following once-daily dosing. No participants discontinued the study drug due to adverse events. The majority of adverse events reported were mild, with no severe or serious adverse events observed. As expected for this class, leading adverse events were gastrointestinal-related, with the two most common gastrointestinal adverse events being nausea and diarrhea, with higher incidences observed in all three cohorts compared to placebo. There were no clinically meaningful changes in liver function tests.

Summary of Treatment Emergent Adverse Events

    

GSBR-1290

    

GSBR-1290

    

GSBR-1290

    

Placebo pooled

Event, N (%)

30 mg (n=6)

60 mg (n=6)

90 mg (n=6)

(n=6)

Any TEAE

5 (83)

6 (100)

6 (100)

4 (67)

Any TEAE by maximum severity

Mild

4 (67)

4 (67)

3 (50)

4 (67)

Moderate

1 (17)

2 (33)

3 (50)

0

Severe

0

0

0

0

Any Serious Adverse Events

0

0

0

0

GSBR-1290 Phase 2a study in diabetes and obesity

The randomized, double-blind, 12-week placebo-controlled Phase 2a clinical trial has enrolled a total of 94 participants to date, including 60 participants randomized to GSBR-1290. The T2DM cohort enrolled 54 participants, randomized to GSBR-1290 at 45 mg (n=10) or 90 mg (n=26), or placebo (n=18), dosed once daily. The obesity cohort initially enrolled 40 participants randomized to GSBR-1290 at 120 mg (n=24) or placebo (n=16), dosed once-daily. An additional 24 participants have been enrolled in the obesity arm as previously announced in September 2023 to replace those for whom 12-week weight data was not collected as a result of a data collection omission. These replacement participants have also been randomized 3:2 to GSBR-1290 or placebo.

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The primary endpoints of the Phase 2a study are safety and tolerability of GSBR-1290. Key secondary endpoints include reduction in weight for both obesity and T2DM cohorts, as well as reduction in HbA1c for the T2DM cohort.

GSBR-1290 Safety and tolerability results

GSBR-1290 demonstrated an encouraging safety and tolerability profile following repeated, daily dosing for all doses studied (up to 120 mg) in the obesity and T2DM cohorts, with results summarized as follows:

The majority (88 to 96%, depending on study arm) of AEs reported were mild to moderate.
There were no SAEs related to study drug.
As expected for this mechanism of action, leading AEs were gastrointestinal-related. The two most common AEs were nausea and vomiting.
There were no cases of elevated liver enzymes in the obesity cohort. One participant in the T2DM treatment group experienced an event of elevated liver enzymes without an increase in bilirubin initially at day 8 while receiving 5 mg of study drug. This participant was diagnosed with fatty liver disease while in the study.
Of the 60 participants dosed with GSBR-1290, only one participant discontinued the study due to AEs related to study drug (none in the obesity cohort and one (2.8%) in the T2DM cohort).

Summary of Treatment Emergent Adverse Events (TEAEs)

Phase 2a TDM Cohort

Phase 2a Obesity Cohort

(12-week data)

(12-week interim data)

    

GSBR-1290

    

GSBR-1290

    

    

GSBR-1290

    

45 mg

90 mg

Placebo

120 mg

Placebo

Event, N (%)

(n=10)

(n=26)

(n=18)

(n=24)

(n=16)

Any TEAE

10 (100)

25 (96.2)

8 (44.4)

23 (95.8)

11 (68.8)

Any TEAE by maximum severity

Mild

2 (20)

6 (23.1)

6 (33.3)

6 (25)

9 (56.3)

Moderate

7 (70)

17 (65.4)

2 (11.1)

17 (70.8)

2 (12.5)

Severe

0

2 (7.7)

0

0

0

Any SAEs

1 (10)

1 (3.8)

0

0

0

Any SAEs related to study drug

0

0

0

0

0

GSBR-1290 Efficacy results

GSBR-1290 demonstrated clinically meaningful activity in both T2DM and obesity cohorts, with results summarized as follows:

In the T2DM cohort, there was a statistically significant HbA1c reduction (-1.01 to -1.02%, placebo-adjusted) at Week 12 (Table 1). The study demonstrated a statistically significant and clinically meaningful reduction in weight at Week 12 (-3.26% to -3.51%, placebo-adjusted) (Table 2). Weight loss continued to decrease through Week 12.
Results of the interim analysis in the obesity cohort showed a statistically significant and clinically meaningful decrease in weight at Week 8 (-4.74%, placebo-adjusted) (Table 3). Weight loss continued to decrease throughout the eight weeks of treatment.

Table 1: Diabetes cohort least square means difference (LSM) change in HbA1c from baseline to 12 weeks (%)

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GSBR-1290

GSBR-1290

    

45 mg

    

90 mg

    

Placebo

(n=10)

(n=26)

(n=18)

LSM HbA1c change from baseline (%)

-0.79

-0.84

0.18

% HbA1c change placebo-adjusted (LSM,

-1.01

-1.02

95% confidence interval (CI))

(-1.73, -0.29)

(-1.59, -0.44)

P-value vs. placebo

p= 0.008

p= 0.001

*LSM, CI and p-value from Mixed Model for Repeated Measures

Table 2: Diabetes cohort LSM change in weight from baseline (%)

    

GSBR-1290

    

GSBR-1290

45 mg 

90 mg 

    

Placebo 

(n=10)

(n=26)

(n=18)

LSM weight change from baseline (%)

-3.32

-3.22

0.04

% weight change placebo-adjusted (LSM,

-3.51

-3.26

95% CI)

(-5.58, -1.43)

(-5.17, -1.36)

P-value vs. placebo

p= 0.0019

p= 0.0013

*LSM, CI and p-value from Mixed Model for Repeated Measures

Table 3: Obesity Cohort LSM change in weight from baseline (%) 8 week interim results

%

GSBR-1290

    

120 mg

    

Placebo

(n=24)

(n=16)

LSM weight change from baseline (%)

-5.5

-0.82

% weight change placebo-adjusted (LSM, 90%

-4.74

CI)

(-6.74, -3.10)

P-value vs. placebo

p< 0.0001

GSBR-1290 Phase 1 Japanese Bridging Study

The 4-week Phase 1 Japanese ethnobridging study included healthy lean Japanese participants randomized to GSBR-1290 (n=9) and placebo (n=3), and healthy lean non-Japanese participants receiving GSBR-1290 (n=6). GSBR-1290 demonstrated a substantial weight reduction in Japanese participants (-3.91% on GSBR-1290 vs -1.67% placebo) and in non-Japanese participants (-5.13% not placebo-adjusted), with no discontinuations or dose reductions, and no SAEs. These data will be used for regulatory interactions in Japan in preparation for potential future global studies of GSBR-1290.

GSBR-1290 Six- and Nine-Month Toxicology Studies

In preparation for Phase 2b development with longer durations of treatment, we have completed six-month (rodent) and nine-month (non-human primate) toxicology studies to evaluate the safety of GSBR-1290. No major findings were observed in either study, with no test article-related changes observed in the liver, including ALT/AST, at all doses, and a more than 100 fold safety window at the 120 mg therapeutic dose.

Amylin Receptor Agonist - Combination GLP-1R Program

Amylin is co-secreted with insulin from β pancreatic cells upon nutrient delivery to the small intestine as a satiety signal, acts upon sub-cortical homeostatic and hedonic brain regions, slows gastric emptying, and

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suppresses post-prandial glucagon responses to meals. Therefore, new pharmacological amylin analogues can be used as potential anti-obesity medications in individuals who are overweight or obese.

Amylin tool compound showed add-on effects when used with semaglutide

Graphic

In collaboration with Schrödinger, we are taking a structure-based drug discovery approach to identify oral small molecule amylin agonists for daily use either alone or in combination with GLP-1R agonists to treat obesity and T2DM. We have identified two novel lead series with promising potency and PK profiles. We have obtained multiple high quality Cryo-EM structures and established in-house in vivo animal models, which enable us to advance our lead optimization effort with high efficiency. In an in-house proof-of-concept study in rats, our small molecule amylin tool compound (ACCG-0184) showed additional beneficial effects when used as an add-on treatment to a GLP-1R agonist. We are planning to select a development candidate in the second half of 2024.

GenerationGIPR Modulator - Combination GLP-1R Program

In our GIPR program, we have identified multiple GIPR agonist, dual GLP-1R/GIRP agonist and GIPR antagonist hits for small molecule GIPR modulation. We believe GLP-1R/GIPR modulation has the potential to provide a differentiated treatment in diabetes and obesity.

Recent third-party clinical data showed tirzepatide, a GLP-1R/GIPR modulator, was superior to semaglutide with respect to glycemic control. The glycated hemoglobin level target of less than 5.7% (normoglycemia) was met in 27 to 46% of the T2DM patients who received tirzepatide compared to 19% of those who received semaglutide. The body weight reduction and gastrointestinal related side effects were similar to the GLP-1R agonists. In addition, many patients who received tirzepatide were noted to have improved biomarkers of insulin sensitivity.

We have obtained both GIP and tirzepatide bound GIPR structures along with GLP-1R structures to guide our small molecular design.

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Multiple Structures of ligand bound GLP-1R, GIPR, GCGR

Graphic

As shown above, representative three-dimensional structures of the incretin GPCRs (e.g., GIPR, GLP-1R, Glucagon receptor) are available for structure-based drug discovery. This structural data enables the ability to design dual and tri modulators of this important class of metabolic GPCRs. The GIPR model shown below suggests that one of our dual GLP-1/GIPR agonists may extend to fill the pocket (highlighted in color) occupied by our GLP-1/GIPR agonist hits. Multiple approaches were applied for hit identification, including a screen of our proprietary incretin compound library. Weak antagonists and agonists were identified. After several rounds of structure activity relationship evolution, a full potential GLP-1R/GIPR antagonist and initial dual GLP-1R/GIPR agonist hit leading to the discovery of an optimized dual GLP-1R/GIPR agonist hit. While displaying different GIPR activity, both compounds still maintained certain levels of GLP-1R activities. We are planning to select a development candidate in the first half of 2025.

GIPR agonist/dual agonist/antagonist hits identified for potential GLP-1R combinations

Graphic

Our LPA1R and APJR Program for the Treatment of IPF

We are developing LTSE-2578, an investigational oral small molecule LPA1R antagonist for the treatment of IPF. We believe LTSE-2578 is a differentiated molecule because it demonstrated potent in vitro and in vivo activity in preclinical IPF models and dose dependent inhibition of histamine release as the pharmacodynamic marker. We have completed IND-enabling studies including 28 day GLP-toxicology studies in dogs and rats.

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We are planning to initiate a first-in-human Phase 1 single and multiple ascending dose study in healthy volunteers in the second quarter of 2024.

In addition, we are developing ANPA-0073, an investigational oral small molecule APJR agonist, for the treatment of IPF. When compared to a non-biased APJR agonist (Apelin-12) in a preclinical study, ANPA-0073 avoided hypotension. In September 2022, we completed a Phase 1 SAD and MAD study evaluating ANPA-0073, in which it was generally well tolerated in healthy human volunteers. We expect to conduct additional preclinical studies and are evaluating plans to initiate a Phase 2 study in IPF.

IPF Disease Background

IPF is a life-threatening chronic interstitial lung disease characterized by progressive fibrosis of lung tissue leading to impaired blood oxygenation, progressive deterioration in lung function, and ultimately respiratory failure. IPF occurs primarily among patients between the ages of 50 and 70 years and is associated with high mortality, with median survival time between three- and five-years following diagnosis. Estimated prevalence of IPF is 13 to 20 per 100,000 people worldwide. In the United States, approximately 100,000 people are affected, and 30,000 to 40,000 new cases are diagnosed each year.

Normal lungs (A) and lungs with IPF (B)

Graphic

The etiology of IPF remains unknown. IPF is a progressive disease, beginning with inflammation followed by fibrotic buildup as damaged epithelial cells surrounding the alveoli are replaced by fibroblasts, as shown above. Buildup of fibroblasts cause the lungs to thicken over time, becoming stiff and unable to properly function. In addition to complications from the disease itself, IPF can lead to other severe co-morbidities, including lung cancer, pulmonary embolisms, pneumonia or PH.

The most common symptoms of IPF are shortness of breath, persistent cough, fatigue, and weight loss, severely impacting quality of life. Given the non-specific nature of these symptoms, IPF is challenging to diagnose, particularly in the early stages of disease.

Current Treatments for IPF and Unmet Medical Need

Currently, there are two FDA-approved drugs for the treatment of IPF, Esbriet (pirfenidone) and Ofev (nintedanib).

Pirfenidone exhibits anti-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties through down-regulation of key pro-fibrotic growth factors including TGF-β, inhibition of inflammatory cytokines production and release and reduction of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. In Phase 3 trials, pirfenidone slowed disease progression and functional decline in patients with IPF and showed a reduced risk of mortality. Common adverse effects of pirfenidone include gastrointestinal intolerance such as nausea, diarrhea and dyspepsia and skin reactions, including rash and photosensitivity.

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Nintedanib is an intracellular inhibitor that targets multiple tyrosine kinase growth factor receptors (vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1-3, fibroblast growth factor receptors 1-3, and platelet-derived growth factor receptors α and β). By inhibiting these receptors, nintedanib interferes with processes implicated in IPF pathogenesis, including proliferation and migration of lung fibroblasts, and differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts. Nintedanib may also have a mortality benefit. Its most frequent side effects are diarrhea and nausea.

Both drugs are recommended by the most recent treatment guidelines from 2015. These therapeutics slow disease progression, but do not offer a cure. The two-year mortality rate is 36% and 39% after treatment of nintedanib and pirfenidone respectively. Safety and tolerability concerns, which resulted in a 20% to 30% discontinuation rate due to side effects, limit therapeutic usage and there remains an unmet medical need for IPF patients. Despite these limitations, these two drugs have generated total sales of $3.6 billion in 2020.

Overview of LPA1R Pathway and Target Biology

Lysophosphatidic acid (“LPA”) is a bioactive lipid which exerts potent extracellular signaling through its interaction with several GPCRs, mediating important cellular responses, such as proliferation, migration, and cytoskeletal reorganization.

LPA/LPA1R in IPF pathogenesis

Graphic

As shown above, upon injury to certain cells in the lung, LPA levels increase and activate LPA1R. In published third-party preclinical studies, LPA1R activation promoted pro-fibrotic processes, including accumulation of fibroblasts; genetic or PD inhibition of LPA1R attenuated bleomycin induced lung fibrosis by mediating fibroblast recruitment and vascular leak.

We believe that LPA1R has been clinically validated as a potential target based on proof-of-concept data from a third party, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled Phase 2 trial of an LPA1R antagonist (BMS-986020) in patients with IPF. Patients in the 600mg BID cohort exhibited significantly slower rates of forced vital capacity decline from baseline to 26 weeks versus placebo. Although the compound was generally well tolerated, dose-related hepatobiliary toxicity in some patients led to early termination of the trial. After conducting additional toxicology investigations, BMS reported that hepatobiliary toxicity was likely caused by inhibition of bile acids efflux transporters such as Bile Salt Export Pump (“BSEP”). Second

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generation LPA1R antagonists (BMS-986278) with minimal BSEP inhibition by BMS are currently in clinical development.

We believe that LPA1R can also be used to treat progressive pulmonary fibrosis (“PPF”), which is defined as the presence of at least two of the three criteria, which are worsening respiratory symptoms, functional decline, and radiological progression in patients with interstitial lung disease with radiological pulmonary fibrosis for known or unknown reasons other than IPF, within the previous year. A conditional recommendation has been made for nintedanib in the treatment of PPF, and further studies are needed for pirfenidone.

As illustrated below, we utilized the available protein structural information to collaborate with Schrödinger. After validation and customization with an initial set of compounds for retrospective analysis, Schrödinger’s FEP was utilized and suggested potency in the prospective analysis. This customized model greatly expedited the iterative lead optimization process and helped us to achieve candidate selection efficiently.

Iterative LPA1R Structure-Based Drug Discovery

Graphic

LTSE-2578 Preclinical Data

In an in vivo PK and PD study, mice were orally dosed with LTSE-2578 and challenged by LPA at one hour and at 12 hours after dosing. Plasma was collected at two minutes post-LPA challenge and histamine level was measured as a pharmacodynamics biomarker. As shown below, LTSE-2578 demonstrated reductions in histamine release at doses ≥ 0.06 mg/kg, as compared to approximately 45 ng/mL and approximately 201 ng/mL for BMS’s first generation (BMS-986020) and second generation (BMS-986278) LPA1R antagonists, respectively.

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LTSE-2578 demonstrated dose dependent inhibition of histamine release

Graphic

LTSE-2578 showed limited inhibition (IC50 > 50 μ M) of efflux transporters including BSEP, MRP3 and MRP4, potentially reducing the likelihood of hepatobiliary toxicity caused by efflux transporter inhibition.

One month GLP toxicity studies of LTSE-2578 in rats and dogs have been completed to enable the upcoming first time in human study.

Overview of APJR Pathway and Target Biology

The apelinergic system plays a key role in the maintenance of vascular health and function through regulation of fibrosis, cell proliferation and inflammation. APJR is highly expressed in the pulmonary vascular endothelium and is upregulated on endothelial cells in IPF patients. Further, activation of the apelinergic system through APJR has been shown to protect endothelial cell survival, and is critical for regeneration of the small capillary blood vessels. These findings support the possibility that an APJR agonist may play a beneficial role in interstitial lung disease.

Apelin binding to APJR activates G-protein second messenger signaling and leads to reduced production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (“cAMP”). Apelin binding to APJR also initiates a feedback loop that eventually downregulates apelin-APJR signaling by recruitment of β-arrestin and subsequent internalization of APJR. In addition, recruitment of β-arrestin triggers downstream pathways that induce vasorelaxation and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Therefore, the degree of activation by designed ligands of G-protein and β-arrestin signaling pathway may lead to both therapeutic benefit and undesirable effects.

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Importance of endothelial cells on pulmonary fibrosis

Graphic

As shown above, while epithelial cell damage and the inflammatory response are known contributors to fibrosis, recent studies have highlighted the importance of endothelial cells on pulmonary fibrosis. Microvascular injuries are observed in patients with pulmonary fibrosis. Persistent vascular leak may support a pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic environment. Endothelial senescence is found in the lung of IPF patients. Senescent endothelial cells could secrete factors that directly stimulate fibroblast activation. Targeting apelin pathway may promote capillary regeneration, ameliorate the inflammatory environment, and reduce endothelial senescence, in this way reducing lung fibrosis. Since an APJR agonist mainly targets endothelial cells, we believe it could be easily combined with the current standard of care, pirfenidone and ninetedanib, which do not target the anti-fibrosis pathway from endothelial cells.

Our APJR Program for the Treatment of Obesity

APJ is expressed in human and murine skeletal muscles. Apelin and APJ are widely distributed in the body and are involved in various physiological functions as blood pressure regulation. Depending on the cell type studied, APJ activation enhances extracellular signal-regulated kinases, AMPK, AKT, and p70S6 kinases and the inhibition of cyclic AMP (cAMP) production. Activation of these pathways would result in worthwhile increases in the protein content of skeletal muscles. Apelin has in fact proved beneficial in maintaining muscle and could potentially counteract age-associated atrophy.

We are evaluating ANPA-0073 which is Phase 2 ready, to be used in combination with weight loss medicines for selective or muscle-sparing weight loss.

ANPA-0073

We are also developing ANPA-0073, an investigational, oral, small molecule APJR agonist, for the treatment of IPF. ANPA-0073 is designed to suppress cAMP production through activation of a G-protein-mediated signaling without significant activation of the β-arrestin pathway in order to avoid APJ internalization, and thereby potentially avoid any desensitization effects of an unbiased APJR agonist. We conducted preclinical in vitro studies on our compounds and third-party compounds to assess arrestin signaling and internalization. As shown below, apelin peptide and clinically tested competitor compounds including AMG-986 and

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BMS-986224 are all non-biased APJR agonists in these in vitro studies, with low β-arrestin/cAMP and internalization/cAMP ratios. Our molecules, such as ANPA-0073 and ANPA-137, are designed to be biased with much higher β-arrestin/cAMP and internalization/cAMP ratios than apelin peptide and the competitor compounds shown below.

APJR biased agonism is a potential differentiator for ANPA-0073

BIASED SELECTIVITY

β-ARRESTIN

COMPOUND ID

SIGNALING/cAMP

INTERNALIZATION/cAMP

Apelin Peptide

    

1.33

1.47

AMG-986

 

0.86

1.00

BMS-986224

 

4.48

1.94

ANPA-0073

 

18.02

3,074

ANPA-137

 

28.20

1,411

ANPA-0073 Preclinical Data

In an in vitro study, ANPA-0073 demonstrated high potency in suppressing cAMP production through the G-protein-mediated signaling pathway with a half maximal excitatory concentration (EC50) value of less than 10 nM (n=15), but less potency in triggering the β-arrestin pathway and APJR internalization respectively. These data suggest ANPA-0073 is highly biased. The G-protein agonist potency of ANPA-0073 was similar across different species (rat, dog and monkey).

Anti-fibrosis effect of an APJ agonist ANPA-0137 was evaluated in bleomycin induced lung fibrosis model. Seven days after bleomycin challenges, mice received oral ANPA-137 for two weeks. ANPA-137 significantly reduced lung fibrosis Ashcroft scores and inflammatory cells infiltration into lung as quantified by inflammatory score as shown below.

APJR agonist demonstrated anti-fibrosis efficacy in therapeutic IPF mouse model

Graphic

Furthermore, ANPA-137 also demonstrated anti-fibrotic activity in an in vivo bleomycin-induced rat lung fibrosis model. Similar to mouse bleomycin study design, seven days after bleomycin challenges, rats

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received 15 mpk of oral ANPA-137 for two weeks. ANPA-137 significantly reduced lung fibrosis as quantified by Ashcroft score as shown below.

APJR agonist demonstrated anti-fibrosis efficacy in therapeutic IPF rat model

Graphic

ANPA-0073 Phase 1 Healthy Volunteer Trial Design

In September 2022, we completed a two-part, 96 subject, first-in-human Phase 1 SAD and MAD study for ANPA-0073 in 48 healthy adult volunteers between the ages of 18 and 55. The objective was to assess drug safety and PK. The first part of this study was a SAD study, involving eight cohorts of eight participants assigned to receive a single dose of ANPA-0073 or placebo in a 3:1 ratio. Doses from 2 mg to 600 mg across the eight cohorts were evaluated. The second part of the trial was a MAD study, including four cohorts of eight subjects receiving sequential ascending doses of ANPA-0073 daily for seven days, increasing from 75 mg to 500 mg once daily. A schema of our Phase 1 study is presented below:

Schema of our ANPA-0073 Phase 1 study in healthy volunteers

ANPA-0073-01 Part A SAD Schema

Graphic

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ANPA-0073-01 Part B MAD Schema

Graphic

ANPA-0073 Phase 1 Safety Data in Healthy Volunteers

ANPA-0073 was generally well tolerated at all dose levels administrated in the SAD and MAD parts of this Phase 1 study.

In the study, PK parameters of systemic exposure, Cmax and AUC, increased with doses of ANPA-0073 across the dose range from 75 mg to 500 mg.

Graphic

In the SAD cohorts, no SAEs and no adverse changes in laboratory tests were observed. Among the AEs reported, five were considered moderate treatment emergent adverse events and the remaining were mild in severity. AEs did not result in any early terminations or subject discontinuations from participation in this study. No trial stopping criteria were met and no significant changes or trends in hematology, blood

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chemistries, vital signs or electrocardiogram (“ECG”) measurements were noted. The following table shows all TEAEs that were reported:

ANPA-0073 Phase 1 SAD Treatment Emergent Adverse Events

Graphic

In the MAD portion of the Phase 1 study, no SAEs and no adverse changes in laboratory tests were observed. Among the AEs reported, twelve were considered moderate TEAEs and the remaining were mild in severity. AEs did not result in any early terminations or subject discontinuations from participation in this study. No trial stopping criteria were met and no significant changes or trends in hematology, blood chemistries, vital signs or ECG measurements were noted. The following table shows all TEAEs that were reported:

ANPA-0073 Phase 1 MAD Treatment Emergent Adverse Events

Graphic

We will initiate the 26-week chronic GLP-toxicology studies in rats and 39-week studies in dogs that we believe will be required by regulatory agencies to continue dosing beyond 13 weeks in Phase 2. We are also evaluating ANPA-0073 for selective or muscle-sparing weight loss.

Intellectual Property

Our success depends in part on our ability to obtain and maintain proprietary protection for our product candidates and other discoveries, inventions, trade secrets and know-how that are critical to our business operations. Our success also depends in part on our ability to operate without infringing the proprietary rights of others, and in part on our ability to prevent others from infringing our proprietary rights. A comprehensive

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discussion on risks relating to intellectual property is provided under Part I. Item 1A. “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property.”

For our GLP-1R program, as of December 31, 2023, our wholly-owned subsidiary Gasherbrum Bio, Inc., is the sole owner of one granted U.S. patent and 11 pending U.S. patent applications, 14 Patent Cooperation Treaty (“PCT”), applications, and 94 pending foreign patent applications in Argentina, the African Regional Intellectual Property Organization (“ARIPO”), Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, the People’s Republic of China (“PRC”), Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Egypt, the Eurasian Patent Office (the “EAPO”), the European Patent Office (the “EPO”), Guatemala, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Israel, India, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, Malaysia, New Zealand, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan, Ukraine, Vietnam, and South Africa. These patent applications, to the extent they issue (or in the case of priority applications, if issued from future non-provisional applications that we file), are expected to expire between 2041 and 2044, without accounting for potentially available patent term adjustments or extensions. These patent applications relate to compositions of matter of heterocyclic GLP-1 agonists, including GSBR-1290 and its analogs, solid forms and methods of treating conditions associated with GLP-1R activity. We intend to strengthen the patent protection of our product candidates and other discoveries, inventions, trade secrets and know-how that are critical to our business operations through additional patent application filings.

For our oral small molecule APJR program, as of December 31, 2023, our wholly-owned subsidiary Annapurna Bio, Inc. is the sole owner of two granted U.S. patents and three pending U.S. patent applications, one PCT application, one granted European patent and 24 pending foreign patent applications in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, the PRC, the EAPO, the EPO, Hong Kong, Israel, India, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, New Zealand, Singapore, Taiwan, and South Africa relating to compounds and compositions of matter for treating conditions associated with Apelin receptor activity, including ANPA-0073 and its analogs, solid forms and methods of treating conditions associated with Apelin receptor activity. Any patents issuing from these patent applications (or in the case of priority applications, if issued from future non-provisional applications that we file) are expected to expire between 2039 and 2043, without accounting for potentially available patent term adjustments or extensions.

For our LPA1R program, as of December 31, 2023, our wholly-owned subsidiary Lhotse Bio, Inc. (“Lhotse”) is the sole owner of three pending U.S. patent applications, four PCT applications and seven pending foreign patent applications in Argentina, the PRC, the EPO, Japan, and Taiwan relating to compounds and compositions of matter for treating conditions associated with LPA receptor activity, including LTSE-2578 and its analogs, and methods of treating conditions associated with LPA receptor activity. Any patents issuing from these patent applications (or in the case of priority applications, if issued from future non-provisional applications that we file) are expected to expire between 2041 and 2044, without accounting for potentially available patent term adjustments or extensions.

For our oral small molecule Amylin program, as of December 31, 2023, our wholly-owned subsidiary Aconcagua Bio, Inc. (“Aconcagua”) is the sole owner of two PCT applications relating to compounds and compositions of matter for treating conditions associated with Amylin receptor activity and methods of treating conditions associated with Amylin receptor activity. Any patents issuing from these patent applications (or in the case of priority applications, if issued from future non-provisional applications that we file) are expected to expire in 2044, without accounting for potentially available patent term adjustments or extensions.

In addition to patent protection, we also rely on trade secrets, know-how, trademarks, other proprietary information and continuing technological innovation to develop and maintain our competitive position. We seek to protect and maintain the confidentiality of proprietary information to protect aspects of our business that are not amenable to, or that we do not consider appropriate for, patent protection. Although we take steps to protect our proprietary information and trade secrets, including through contractual means with our employees and consultants, third parties may independently develop substantially equivalent proprietary information and techniques or otherwise gain access to our trade secrets or disclose our technology. Thus, we may not be able to meaningfully protect our trade secrets. It is our policy to require our employees, consultants, outside scientific collaborators, sponsored researchers and other advisors to execute confidentiality agreements upon the commencement of employment or consulting relationships with us.

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However, such confidentiality agreements can be breached, and we may not have adequate remedies for any such breach. For more information regarding the risks related to our intellectual property, see Part I. Item 1A. “Risk Factors — Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property.”

Lhotse Collaboration Agreement with Schrödinger, LLC

In October 2020, Lhotse, our wholly-owned subsidiary, entered into a collaboration agreement with Schrödinger (the “Lhotse-Schrödinger Agreement”) to discover and develop novel, orally bioavailable, small molecule inhibitors of LPA1R. Under the Lhotse-Schrödinger Agreement, Schrödinger is obligated to provide computational modeling and design support, including by using its technology platform to perform virtual screens, and Lhotse is obligated to provide day-to-day chemistry and biology support. Pursuant to the Lhotse-Schrödinger Agreement, a joint steering committee comprised of representatives from both parties oversees the research performed under the agreement. During the term of the Lhotse-Schrödinger Agreement and for a specified period thereafter while Lhotse is engaged in active development of any compound having activity against LPA1R that is discovered or developed under the Lhotse-Schrödinger Agreement, Schrödinger is obligated to work exclusively with Lhotse on the design, research, development and commercialization of compounds that inhibit LPA1R. Lhotse will solely own the research results, work product, inventions and other intellectual property generated under the Lhotse-Schrödinger Agreement that are directed to LPA1R.

Under the Lhotse-Schrödinger Agreement, Lhotse is obligated to pay Schrödinger a quarterly active program payment in the low six digits for each successive three-month period during which Schrödinger continues to perform research work as agreed by the parties, and as of December 31, 2023, we have paid to Schrödinger an aggregate of $0.8 million. If Lhotse develops and commercializes a product containing a compound (“Collaboration Compound”) that is discovered or developed under the Lhotse-Schrödinger Agreement (“Collaboration Product”), Lhotse is obligated to pay Schrödinger development and regulatory milestone payments of up to an aggregate of $17.0 million, regardless of the number of Collaboration Products that reach such milestones. Lhotse will also be obligated to pay Schrödinger tiered royalties in the low single digit range on aggregate worldwide net sales of all Collaboration Products, subject to specified reductions and offsets. Lhotse’s obligation to pay royalties to Schrödinger will expire on a Collaboration Product-by-Collaboration Product and country-by-country basis on the later of (i) the expiration of the last-to-expire Lhotse owned patent claim covering the composition of matter of the Collaboration Compound contained in such Collaboration Product in such country, (ii) the expiration of regulatory, pediatric, orphan drug, or data exclusivity with respect to such Collaboration Product in such country, and (iii) ten years after the first commercial sale of such Collaboration Product in such country (“Royalty Term”).

Unless terminated earlier, the Lhotse-Schrödinger Agreement will continue for three years, subject to extension by mutual written agreement of the parties. Either party may terminate the Lhotse-Schrödinger Agreement for the other party’s uncured material breach, subject to certain notice and cure periods, or for the other party’s bankruptcy or insolvency. Lhotse’s obligation to make milestone and royalty payments (subject to the Royalty Term) to Schrödinger continues after the expiration or termination of the Lhotse-Schrödinger Agreement.

Aconcagua Collaboration Agreement with Schrödinger

In November 2023, Aconcagua, our wholly-owned subsidiary, entered into a collaboration agreement (the “Aconcagua-Schrödinger Agreement”) with Schrödinger to discover and develop novel, small molecule modulators of a specific target. Under the Aconcagua-Schrödinger Agreement, Schrödinger is obligated to provide computational modeling and design support, including by using its technology platform to perform virtual screens, and Aconcagua is obligated to provide day-to-day chemistry and biology support. Pursuant to the Aconcagua-Schrödinger Agreement, a joint steering committee comprised of representatives from both parties oversees the research performed under the agreement. During the term of the Aconcagua-Schrödinger Agreement or if longer, for a specified number of years after the effective date of the Aconcagua-Schrödinger Agreement, Schrödinger is obligated, subject to certain exceptions, to work exclusively with Aconcagua on the design, research, development and commercialization of compounds that inhibit the target. Aconcagua will solely own the research results, work product, inventions and other intellectual property

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generated under the Aconcagua-Schrödinger Agreement other than improvements to Schrödinger’s background intellectual property.

During the term of the Aconcagua-Schrödinger Agreement, Aconcagua is obligated to pay Schrödinger a monthly active program payment in the low six digits, which payment includes fees payable for certain Schrödinger software employed in the Collaboration, and as of December 31, 2023, we have paid to Schrödinger an aggregate of $0.3 million. If Aconcagua develops and commercializes a product containing a compound (“Aconcagua Collaboration Compound”) that is discovered or developed under the Aconcagua-Schrödinger Agreement or a derivative thereof (“Aconcagua Collaboration Product”), Aconcagua is obligated to pay Schrödinger development, regulatory and commercialization milestone payments of up to an aggregate of $89.0 million for the first Aconcagua Collaboration Product to achieve a particular milestone event, regardless of the number of Aconcagua Collaboration Products that reach such milestones. Aconcagua will also be obligated to pay Schrödinger tiered royalties in the low single digit range on aggregate worldwide net sales of all Aconcagua Collaboration Products, subject to specified reductions and offsets. Aconcagua’s obligation to pay royalties to Schrödinger will expire on a Aconcagua Collaboration Product-by- Aconcagua Collaboration Product and country-by-country basis on the later of (i) the expiration of the last-to-expire Aconcagua owned patent claim covering the composition of matter of the Aconcagua Collaboration Compound contained in such Aconcagua Collaboration Product in such country and (ii) ten years after the first commercial sale of such Aconcagua Collaboration Product in such country (“Aconcagua Royalty Term”).

Unless terminated earlier, the Aconcagua-Schrödinger Agreement will continue for three years, subject to extension by mutual written agreement of the parties. Either party may terminate the Aconcagua-Schrödinger Agreement for convenience after a specified period or for the other party’s uncured material breach. Aconcagua’s obligation to make milestone and royalty payments (subject to the Aconcagua Royalty Term) to Schrödinger continues after the expiration or termination of the Aconcagua-Schrödinger Agreement, unless the Aconcagua-Schrödinger Agreement is terminated under specified circumstances.

Manufacturing

We do not own or operate manufacturing facilities for the production of our product candidates and currently have no immediate plans to build our own clinical or commercial scale manufacturing capabilities. We currently engage with third-party contract manufacturing organizations (“CMOs”) in multiple geographies for the manufacture of our product candidates. We rely on and expect to continue to engage third-party manufacturers for the production of both drug substance and finished drug product. We currently obtain our supplies from these manufacturers on a purchase order basis and do not have long-term supply arrangements in place. Should any of these manufacturers become unavailable to us for any reason, we believe that there are a number of potential replacements.

Competition

The biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries are characterized by rapid evolution of technologies, fierce competition and strong defense of intellectual property. While we believe that our platform and our knowledge, experience and scientific resources provide us with competitive advantages, we face competition from major pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, academic institutions, governmental agencies and public and private research institutions, among others.

If any of our product candidates are approved for the indications for which we expect to conduct clinical trials, they will compete with the foregoing therapies and currently marketed drugs, as well as any drugs potentially in development. It is also possible that we will face competition from other pharmaceutical approaches as well as other types of therapies. The key competitive factors affecting the success of all our programs, if approved, are likely to be their efficacy, safety, convenience, price, level of generic competition, and availability of reimbursement.

Despite significant biopharmaceutical industry investment, no oral small molecule therapy targeting GLP-1R has been approved for the treatment of diabetes or obesity. We are aware of GLP-1R small molecules in

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development by Eccogene (licensed by Astrazeneca in November 2023) Carmot Therapeutics (acquired by Roche in January 2024), Terns Pharmaceuticals, Pfizer, Eli Lilly, and Qilu Regor Therapeutics Inc. There are currently approved GLP-1R peptides for the Pfizer, Eli Lilly, and Qilu Regor Therapeutics Inc. There are currently approved GLP-1R peptides for the treatment of diabetes and obesity marketed by Novo Nordisk, Eli Lilly, AstraZeneca, and Sanofi. We are aware of other GLP-1R plus dual/tri incretin targeting peptides in development by Eli Lilly, Jiangsu Hansoh Pharmaceutical Group Co., Ltd., Boehringer Ingelheim, Altimmune, Inc., Carmot Therapeutics, Inc., and Sciwind Biosciences Co., Ltd. In addition, there are a number of companies developing product candidates for diabetes and obesity utilizing approaches with different mechanisms of action, including but not limited to sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors.

We are aware of APJR targeted product candidates in development for COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome by CohBar, Inc.; IPF, systemic sclerosis interstitial lung disease, and kidney nephrotic syndrome by Apie Therapeutics; and muscle atrophy by BioAge Labs, Inc. Both Amgen and Bristol Myers Squibb (“BMS”) have APJR targeted product candidates for heart failure. In addition, there are a number of companies developing product candidates for PAH utilizing approaches with different mechanisms of action, including but not limited to FibroGen, Inc., Galapagos NV, Galecto, Inc., Pliant Therapeutics, Inc., Gilead Sciences, Inc., Roche Holding AG and Boehringer Ingelheim.

We are aware of LPA1R targeted product candidates in development for IPF by BMS, Horizon Therapeutics plc (acquired by Amgen in October 2023), and DJS Antibodies Ltd; and myelin restoration and neuroinflammation by Pipeline Therapeutics. In addition, there are a number of companies developing product candidates for IPF utilizing approaches with different mechanisms of action, including Roche Holding AG and Boehringer Ingelheim.

Many of our current or potential competitors, either alone or with their collaboration partners, have significantly greater financial resources and expertise in research and development, manufacturing, preclinical testing, conducting clinical trials, obtaining regulatory approvals, and marketing approved products than we do. These competitors also compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific and management personnel and establishing clinical trial sites and patient registration for clinical trials, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our programs. Mergers and acquisitions in the biopharmaceutical industries may result in even more resources being concentrated among a smaller number of our competitors. Smaller or early-stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies.

Our commercial opportunity could be reduced or eliminated if our competitors develop and commercialize products that are safer, more effective, have fewer or less severe side effects, are more convenient or are less expensive than any products that we may develop. Our competitors also may obtain FDA or other applicable regulatory approval for their products more rapidly than we may obtain approval for ours, which could result in our competitors establishing a strong market position before we are able to enter the market. In addition, our ability to compete may be affected in many cases by insurers or other third-party payors seeking to encourage the use of generic products. There are generic products currently on the market for certain of the indications that we are pursuing and additional products are expected to become available on a generic basis over the coming years. If our product candidates are approved, we expect that they will be priced at a significant premium over competitive generic products.

Data Privacy and Security Laws

Numerous state, federal and foreign laws, regulations and standards govern the collection, use, access to, confidentiality and security of health-related and other personal or sensitive information, and could apply now or in the future to our operations or the operations of our partners. In the United States, numerous federal and state laws and regulations, including data breach notification laws, health information privacy and security laws and consumer protection laws and regulations govern the collection, use, disclosure, and protection of health-related and other personal information. In addition, certain foreign laws govern the privacy and security of personal data, including health-related data. For example, the European Union General Data Protection Regulation (“EU GDPR”) imposes strict requirements for processing the personal data of individuals within

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the European Economic Area (“EEA”). Companies that must comply with the EU GDPR face increased compliance obligations and risk, including more robust regulatory enforcement of data protection requirements and potential fines for noncompliance of up to €20 million or 4% of the annual global revenues of the noncompliant company, whichever is greater. Further, from January 1, 2021, companies have had to comply with the GDPR and also the United Kingdom (“UK”) GDPR (“UK GDPR”) which, together with the amended UK Data Protection Act 2018, retains the GDPR in UK national law. The UK GDPR mirrors the fines under the GDPR relating to fines up to the greater of £17.5 million or 4% of global turnover. Privacy and security laws, regulations, and other obligations are constantly evolving, may conflict with each other to complicate compliance efforts, and can result in investigations, proceedings, or actions that lead to significant civil and/or criminal penalties and restrictions on data processing.

Regulation

Government Regulation of Pharmaceutical Product Development and Approval

U.S. Regulation of Pharmaceutical Product Development and Approval

In the United States, the FDA regulates drugs under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (“FDCA”) and its implementing regulations. Drugs are also subject to other federal, state and local statutes and regulations. The process of obtaining marketing approvals and the subsequent compliance with appropriate federal, state and local rules and regulations requires the expenditure of substantial time and financial resources. Our drug candidates must be approved by the FDA through the NDA process before they may be legally marketed in the United States. The process required by the FDA before a drug may be marketed in the United States generally involves the following:

completion of extensive preclinical laboratory tests, preclinical animal studies and formulation studies all performed in compliance with applicable regulations, including the FDA’s good laboratory practices (“GLP”) regulations;
submission to the FDA of an Investigational IND which must become effective before human clinical trials may begin;
approval by an institutional review board (“IRB”) or ethics committee representing each clinical site before each clinical trial may be initiated;
performance of adequate and well-controlled human clinical trials in accordance with applicable good clinical practices (“GCPs”) and other clinical trial-related regulations, to establish the safety and efficacy of the proposed drug product for its proposed indication;
preparation and submission to the FDA of an NDA together with payment of user fees;
a determination by the FDA within 60 days of its receipt of an NDA to file the NDA for review;
review by an FDA advisory committee, where appropriate or if applicable;
satisfactory completion of an FDA pre-approval inspection of the manufacturing facility or facilities at which the active pharmaceutical ingredient (“API”) and finished drug product are produced to assess compliance with the FDA’s current Good Manufacturing Practices (“cGMP”);
potential FDA audit of the preclinical and/or clinical trial sites that generated the data in support of the NDA; and
FDA review and approval of the NDA prior to any commercial marketing or sale of the drug in the United States.

Preclinical Studies and Clinical Trials

The preclinical development stage generally involves synthesizing the active component, developing the formulation and determining the manufacturing process, evaluating purity and stability, as well as carrying out

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non-human toxicology, pharmacology and drug metabolism studies in the laboratory, which support subsequent clinical testing. The conduct of the preclinical tests must comply with federal regulations, including GLPs where applicable. The sponsor must submit the results of the preclinical tests, together with manufacturing information, analytical data, any available clinical data or literature and a proposed clinical protocol, to the FDA as part of the IND. An IND is a request for authorization from the FDA to administer an investigational drug product to humans. The central focus of an IND submission is on the general investigational plan and the protocol(s) for human trials. The IND automatically becomes effective 30 days after receipt by the FDA, unless the FDA raises concerns or questions regarding the proposed clinical trials and places the IND on clinical hold within that 30-day time period. In such a case, the IND sponsor and the FDA must resolve any outstanding concerns or questions before the clinical trial can begin. Some long-term preclinical testing, such as animal tests of reproductive adverse events and carcinogenicity, may continue after the IND is submitted. The FDA may also impose clinical holds on a drug candidate at any time before or during clinical trials due to safety concerns or non-compliance. Accordingly, submission of an IND does not guarantee the FDA will allow clinical trials to begin, or that, once begun, issues will not arise that could cause the trial to be suspended or terminated.

The clinical stage of development involves the administration of the drug product to human subjects or patients under the supervision of qualified investigators, generally physicians not employed by or under the trial sponsor’s control, in accordance with GCPs, which establish standards for conducting, recording data from, and reporting the results of clinical trials, and are intended to assure that the rights, safety, and well-being of study participants are protected. GCPs also include the requirement that all research subjects provide their informed consent in writing for their participation in any clinical trial. Clinical trials are conducted under written study protocols detailing, among other things, the objectives of the clinical trial, dosing procedures, subject selection and exclusion criteria, and the parameters to be used to monitor subject safety and assess efficacy. Each protocol, and any subsequent amendments to the protocol, must be submitted to the FDA as part of the IND. A separate submission to the existing IND must be made for each successive clinical trial conducted during product development and for any subsequent protocol amendments. While the IND is active and before approval, progress reports summarizing the results of the clinical trials and nonclinical studies performed since the last progress report must be submitted at least annually to the FDA, and written IND safety reports must be submitted to the FDA and investigators for serious and unexpected suspected adverse events, findings from other studies suggesting a significant risk to humans exposed to the same or similar drugs, findings from animal or in vitro testing suggesting a significant risk to humans, and any clinically important increased incidence of a serious suspected adverse reaction compared to that listed in the protocol or investigator brochure.

Further, each clinical trial must be reviewed and approved by each institution at which the clinical trial will be conducted. An IRB is charged with protecting the welfare and rights of trial participants and considers such items as whether the risks to individuals participating in the clinical trials are minimized and are reasonable in relation to anticipated benefits.

The IRB also reviews and approves the informed consent form that must be provided to each clinical trial subject or his or her legal representative and must monitor the clinical trial until completed. Some studies also include oversight by an independent group of qualified experts organized by the clinical trial sponsor, known as a data safety monitoring board, which provides authorization for whether or not a study may move forward at designated check points based on access to certain data from the study and may halt the clinical trial if it determines that there is an unacceptable safety risk for subjects or other grounds, such as no demonstration of efficacy. Depending on its charter, this group may determine whether a trial may move forward at designated check points based on access to certain data from the trial. There are also requirements governing the reporting of ongoing clinical trials and completed clinical trial results to public registries.

Clinical trials are generally conducted in three sequential phases that may overlap or be combined, known as Phase I, Phase II and Phase III clinical trials.

Phase I:     The drug is initially introduced into a small number of healthy volunteers or patients with the target disease or condition who are initially exposed to a single dose and then multiple doses of

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the drug candidate. These studies are designed to assess the metabolism, pharmacologic action, dosage tolerance, side effects associated with increasing doses, and safety of the drug, and if possible, to gain early evidence on effectiveness.
Phase II:    The drug is administered to a limited patient population with a specified disease or condition to evaluate optimal dosage and dosing schedule. At the same time, safety and further PK and PD information is collected, as well as identification of possible adverse effects and safety risks and preliminary evaluation of efficacy.
Phase III:   The drug is administered to an expanded number of patients, generally at multiple sites that are geographically dispersed, in well-controlled clinical trials to generate enough data to demonstrate the efficacy of the drug for its intended use, its safety profile, and to establish the overall benefit/risk profile of the drug and provide an adequate basis for drug approval and labeling of the drug product.

Post-approval trials, sometimes referred to as Phase IV clinical trials, may be conducted after initial marketing approval. These trials are used to gain additional experience from the treatment of patients in the intended therapeutic indication. In certain instances, the FDA may mandate the performance of Phase IV clinical trials as a condition of NDA approval.

The FDA, the IRB, or the clinical trial sponsor may suspend or terminate a clinical trial at any time on various grounds, including a finding that the research subjects or patients are being exposed to an unacceptable health risk. Similarly, an IRB can suspend or terminate approval of a clinical trial at its institution, or an institution it represents, if the clinical trial is not being conducted in accordance with the IRB’s requirements or if the drug has been associated with unexpected serious harm to patients. Concurrent with clinical trials, companies usually complete additional animal studies and must also develop additional information about the chemistry and physical characteristics of the drug as well as finalize a process for manufacturing the drug in commercial quantities in accordance with cGMP requirements. The manufacturing process must be capable of consistently producing quality batches of the drug candidate and, among other things, cGMPs impose extensive procedural, substantive and recordkeeping requirements to ensure and preserve the long-term stability and quality of the final drug product. Additionally, appropriate packaging must be selected and tested and stability studies must be conducted to demonstrate that the drug candidate does not undergo unacceptable deterioration over its shelf life.

NDA Submission and FDA Review Process

Assuming successful completion of all required testing in accordance with all applicable regulatory requirements, the results of non-clinical studies and of the clinical trials, together with other detailed information, including extensive manufacturing information and information on the composition of the drug and proposed labeling, are submitted to the FDA in the form of an NDA requesting approval to market the drug for one or more specified indications. Data can come from company-sponsored clinical studies intended to test the safety and effectiveness of a use of the product, or from a number of alternative sources, including studies initiated by independent investigators. Under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act, as amended (“PDUFA”) each NDA must be accompanied by an application user fee. The FDA adjusts the PDUFA user fees on an annual basis. PDUFA also imposes an annual prescription drug program fee for human drugs. Fee waivers or reductions are available in certain circumstances, including a waiver of the application fee for the first application filed by a small business. Additionally, no user fees are assessed on NDAs for products designated as orphan drugs, unless the product also includes a non-orphan indication.

The FDA conducts a preliminary review of all NDAs within the first 60 days after submission, before accepting them for filing, to determine whether they are sufficiently complete to permit substantive review The FDA may request additional information rather than accept an NDA for filing. In this event, the NDA must be resubmitted with the additional information. The resubmitted application also is subject to review before the FDA accepts it for filing. Once filed, the FDA has a goal of ten months from the filing date to complete a standard review of an NDA for a drug that is a new molecular entity. This review typically takes twelve months from the date the NDA is submitted to FDA because the FDA has approximately two months to make a “filing”

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decision after it the application is submitted. The FDA reviews the NDA to determine, among other things, whether the proposed drug is safe and effective for its intended use, and whether the drug is being manufactured in accordance with cGMP to assure and preserve the drug’s identity, strength, quality and purity.

The FDA may refer applications for novel drugs or drug candidates that present difficult questions of safety or efficacy to an advisory committee, typically a panel that includes clinicians and other experts, for review, evaluation and a recommendation as to whether the application should be approved and under what conditions. The FDA is not bound by the recommendations of an advisory committee, but it considers such recommendations carefully when making decisions.

Before approving an NDA, the FDA will conduct a pre-approval inspection of the manufacturing facilities for the new drug to determine whether they comply with cGMPs. The FDA will not approve the drug unless it determines that the manufacturing processes and facilities are in compliance with cGMP requirements and adequate to assure consistent production of the drug within required specifications. In addition, before approving an NDA, the FDA may re-analyze clinical trial data and may also audit data from clinical trials to ensure compliance with GCP requirements.

After the FDA evaluates the application, manufacturing process and manufacturing facilities where the drug product and/or its API will be produced, it may issue an approval letter or a Complete Response Letter (“CRL”) An approval letter authorizes commercial marketing of the drug with specific prescribing information for specific indications. A CRL indicates that the review cycle of the application is complete and the application is not ready for approval. A CRL usually describes all of the specific deficiencies in the NDA identified by the FDA. The CRL may require additional clinical data and/or an additional pivotal clinical trial(s), and/or other significant, expensive and time-consuming requirements related to clinical trials, preclinical studies or manufacturing. If a CRL is issued, the applicant may either resubmit the NDA, addressing all of the deficiencies identified in the letter, or withdraw the application. Even if such data and information is submitted, the FDA may ultimately decide that the NDA does not satisfy the criteria for approval.

If a drug receives marketing approval, such approval will be granted for particular indications and may be significantly limited to specific diseases, dosages, or patient populations. Further, the FDA may require that certain contraindications, warnings or precautions be included in the drug labeling or may condition the approval of the NDA on other changes to the proposed labeling, development of adequate controls and specifications, or a commitment to conduct post-market testing or clinical trials and surveillance to monitor the effects of approved drugs. For example, the FDA may require so-called Phase IV testing which involves clinical trials designed to further assess a drug’s safety and effectiveness and may require testing and surveillance programs to monitor the safety of approved drugs that have been commercialized. The FDA may also place other conditions on approvals including the requirement for a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (“REMS”) to ensure that the benefits of a drug or biological product outweigh its risks. A REMS is a safety strategy to manage a known or potential serious risk associated with a medicine and to enable patients to have continued access to such medicines by managing their safe use, and could include medication guides, physician communication plans, or elements to assure safe use, such as restricted distribution methods, patient registries, and other risk minimization tools. Any of these limitations on approval or marketing could restrict the commercial promotion, distribution, prescription or dispensing of drugs. Drug approvals may be withdrawn for non-compliance with regulatory standards or if problems occur following initial marketing.

Pediatric Trials

Under the Pediatric Research Equity Act, an NDA or supplement thereto must contain data that are adequate to assess the safety and effectiveness of the drug product for the claimed indications in all relevant pediatric subpopulations, and to support dosing and administration for each pediatric subpopulation for which the product is safe and effective. A sponsor who is planning to submit a marketing application for a drug that includes a new active ingredient, new indication, new dosage form, new dosing regimen or new route of administration must also submit an initial Pediatric Study Plan (“PSP”) within sixty days of an end-of-Phase II

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meeting or as may be agreed between the sponsor and the FDA. The initial PSP must include an outline of the pediatric study or studies that the sponsor plans to conduct, including study objectives and design, age groups, relevant endpoints and statistical approach, or a justification for not including such detailed information, and any request for a deferral of pediatric assessments or a full or partial waiver of the requirement to provide data from pediatric studies along with supporting information. The FDA and the sponsor must reach agreement on the PSP. A sponsor can submit amendments to an agreed-upon initial PSP at any time if changes to the pediatric plan need to be considered based on data collected from preclinical studies, early phase clinical trials, and/or other clinical development programs.

Orphan Drug Designation and Exclusivity

Under the Orphan Drug Act, the FDA may designate a drug product as an “orphan drug” if it is intended to treat a rare disease or condition (generally meaning that it affects fewer than 200,000 individuals in the United States, or more in cases in which there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing and making a drug product available in the United States for treatment of the disease or condition will be recovered from sales of the product). A company must request orphan product designation before submitting an NDA. If the request is granted, the FDA will publicly disclose the identity of the therapeutic agent and its potential use. Orphan product designation does not convey any advantage in or shorten the duration of the regulatory review and approval process.

If a product that has orphan drug designation subsequently receives the first FDA approval for a particular active ingredient for the disease for which it has such designation, the product is entitled to orphan product exclusivity, meaning that the FDA may not approve any other applications for the same product for the same indication for seven years, including a full NDA, except in certain limited circumstances, such as a showing of clinical superiority to the product with orphan drug exclusivity or if the FDA finds that the holder of the orphan drug exclusivity has not shown that it can assure the availability of sufficient quantities of the orphan drug to meet the needs of patients with the disease or condition for which the drug was designated. Orphan drug exclusivity does not prevent the FDA from approving a different drug for the same disease or condition, or the same drug for a different disease or condition. Among the other benefits of orphan drug designation are tax credits for certain research and a waiver of the NDA application user fee.

A designated orphan drug may not receive orphan drug exclusivity if it is approved for a use that is broader than the indication for which it received orphan designation. In addition, orphan drug exclusive marketing rights in the United States may be lost if the FDA later determines that the request for designation was materially defective or, as noted above, if a second applicant demonstrates that its product is clinically superior to the approved product with orphan exclusivity or the manufacturer of the approved product is unable to assure sufficient quantities of the product to meet the needs of patients with the rare disease or condition.

Post-Marketing Requirements

Following approval of a new drug, the NDA sponsor and the approved drug are subject to continuing regulation by the FDA, including, among other things, monitoring and recordkeeping activities, reporting to the applicable regulatory authorities of adverse experiences with the drug, providing the regulatory authorities with updated safety and efficacy information, drug sampling and distribution requirements, and complying with applicable promotion and advertising requirements. Modifications or enhancements to the drug or its labeling or changes of the site of manufacture are often subject to the approval of the FDA and other regulators, which may or may not be received or may result in a lengthy review process.

FDA regulations also require that approved drug products be manufactured in specific facilities identified in the approved application for marketing and in accordance with cGMP. NDA holders using contract manufacturers, laboratories or packagers are responsible for the selection and monitoring of qualified firms, and, in certain circumstances, qualified suppliers to these firms. These manufacturers must comply with cGMP regulations that require, among other things, quality control and quality assurance as well as the corresponding maintenance of records and documentation and the obligation to investigate and correct any

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deviations from cGMP. Drug manufacturers and other entities involved in the manufacture and distribution of approved drugs are required to register their establishments with the FDA and certain state agencies, and are subject to periodic unannounced inspections by the FDA and certain state agencies for compliance with cGMP and other laws. Accordingly, manufacturers must continue to expend time, money, and effort in the area of production and quality control to maintain cGMP compliance.

The FDA may withdraw approval if compliance with regulatory requirements and standards is not maintained or if problems occur after the product reaches the market. Later discovery of previously unknown problems with a product, including adverse events of unanticipated severity or frequency, or with manufacturing processes, or failure to comply with regulatory requirements, may result in revisions to the approved labeling to add new safety information; imposition of post-market studies or clinical trials to assess new safety risks; or imposition of distribution restrictions or other restrictions under a REMS program. Other potential consequences include, among other things:

restrictions on the marketing or manufacturing of the product, complete withdrawal of the product from the market or product recalls;
fines, warning letters, or untitled letters;
clinical holds on clinical trials;
refusal of the FDA to approve pending applications or supplements to approved applications, or suspension or revocation of product approvals;
product seizure or detention, or refusal to permit the import or export of products;
consent decrees, corporate integrity agreements, debarment or exclusion from federal healthcare programs;
mandated modification of promotional materials and labeling and the issuance of corrective information;
the issuance of safety alerts, Dear Healthcare Provider letters, press releases and other communications containing warnings or other safety information about the product; or
injunctions or the imposition of civil or criminal penalties.

The FDA closely regulates the marketing, labeling, advertising and promotion of drug products. A company can make only those claims relating to safety and efficacy, purity and potency that are approved by the FDA and in accordance with the provisions of the approved label. The FDA and other agencies actively enforce the laws and regulations prohibiting the promotion of off-label uses. Failure to comply with these requirements can result in, among other things, adverse publicity, warning letters, corrective advertising and potential civil and criminal penalties. Physicians may prescribe, in their independent professional medical judgment, legally available products for uses that are not described in the product’s labeling and that differ from those tested by us and approved by the FDA. Physicians may believe that such off-label uses are the best treatment for many patients in varied circumstances. The FDA does not regulate the behavior of physicians in their choice of treatments. The FDA does, however, restrict manufacturer’s communications on the subject of off-label use of their products. However, companies may share truthful and not misleading information that is otherwise consistent with a product’s FDA-approved labeling.

Marketing Exclusivity

Market exclusivity provisions under the FDCA can delay the acceptance by the FDA for review, or the approval, of certain marketing applications. The FDCA provides a five-year period of non-patent data exclusivity within the United States to the first applicant to obtain approval of an NDA for a new chemical entity. A drug is a new chemical entity if the FDA has not previously approved any other new drug containing the same active moiety, which is the molecule or ion responsible for the action of the drug substance. During the exclusivity period, the FDA may not accept for review an abbreviated new drug application (“ANDA”), or

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an NDA submitted under Section 505(b)(2), or 505(b)(2) NDA, submitted by another company for another drug based on the same active moiety, regardless of whether the drug is intended for the same indication as the original reference drug or for another indication, where the applicant does not own or have a legal right of reference to all the data required for approval. However, an application may be accepted for review after four years if it contains a certification of patent invalidity or non-infringement to one of the patents listed with the FDA for the reference drug.

The FDCA alternatively provides three years of marketing exclusivity for an NDA, or supplement to an existing NDA if new clinical investigations, other than bioavailability studies, that were conducted or sponsored by the applicant are deemed by the FDA to be essential to the approval of the application, such as new indications, dosages or strengths of an existing drug. This three-year exclusivity covers only the modification for which the drug received approval on the basis of the new clinical investigations and does not prohibit the FDA from approving abbreviated NDAs or 505(b)(2) NDAs for drugs containing the active agent for the original indication or condition of use.

Five-year and three-year exclusivity will not delay the submission or approval of a full NDA. However, an applicant submitting a full NDA would be required to conduct or obtain a right of reference to any preclinical studies and adequate and well-controlled clinical trials necessary to demonstrate safety and effectiveness.

Pediatric exclusivity is another type of marketing exclusivity available in the United States. Pediatric exclusivity provides for an additional six months of marketing exclusivity attached to another period of exclusivity if a sponsor conducts clinical trials in children in response to a written request from the FDA. The issuance of a written request does not require the sponsor to undertake the described clinical trials.

Other U.S. Regulatory Matters

Manufacturing, sales, promotion and other activities following drug approval are also subject to regulation by numerous regulatory authorities in addition to the FDA, including, in the United States, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (“CMS”), other divisions of the Department of Health and Human Services, the Consumer Product Safety Commission, the Federal Trade Commission, the Occupational Safety & Health Administration, the Environmental Protection Agency and state and local governments. In the United States, the activities of pharmaceutical manufacturers are subject to federal and state laws designed to prevent fraud and abuse in the healthcare industry. The laws generally limit financial interactions between manufacturers and health care providers or other participants in the healthcare industry and/or require disclosure to the government and public of such interactions. Many of these laws and regulations contain ambiguous requirements or require administrative guidance for implementation.

Pharmaceutical manufacturers are also required to provide discounts or rebates under government healthcare programs or to certain government and private purchasers in order to obtain coverage under federal healthcare programs such as Medicaid. Participation in such programs may require tracking and reporting of certain drug prices. Manufacturers are subject to fines and other penalties if such prices are not reported accurately. Drugs must meet applicable child-resistant packaging requirements under the U.S. Poison Prevention Packaging Act. Manufacturing, sales, promotion and other activities are also potentially subject to federal and state consumer protection and unfair competition laws.

The distribution of pharmaceutical drugs is subject to additional requirements and regulations, including extensive record-keeping, licensing, storage and security requirements intended to prevent the unauthorized sale of pharmaceutical drugs.

The failure to comply with regulatory requirements subjects manufacturers to possible legal or regulatory action. Depending on the circumstances, failure to meet applicable regulatory requirements can result in criminal prosecution, fines, civil monetary or other penalties, injunctions, recall or seizure of drugs, total or partial suspension of production, denial or withdrawal of product approvals, additional regulatory oversight and integrity monitoring, exclusion from participation in government healthcare programs or refusal to allow a firm to enter into supply contracts, including government contracts. In addition, even if a firm complies with

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FDA and other requirements, new information regarding the safety or efficacy of a product could lead the FDA to modify or withdraw product approval. Prohibitions or restrictions on sales or withdrawal of future products marketed by us could materially affect our business in an adverse way.

Chinese Regulation of Pharmaceutical Product Development and Approval

Since China’s entry into the World Trade Organization in 2001, the Chinese government has made significant efforts to standardize regulations, develop its pharmaceutical regulatory system and strengthen intellectual property protection.

In October 2017, China’s drug regulatory system entered a new and significant period of reform. The General Office of the State Council and the General Office of the Communist Party of China Central Committee jointly issued the Opinion on Deepening the Reform of the Regulatory Approval System to Encourage Innovation in Drugs and Medical Devices, or the Innovation Opinion, which is a mandatory plan to further reform the review and approval system and to encourage the innovation of drugs and medical devices. Under the Innovation Opinion and other recent reforms, the expedited programs and other advantages encourage drug manufacturers to seek marketing approval in China first and to develop drugs in high priority disease areas, such as oncology or rare disease.

To implement the regulatory reform introduced by the Innovation Opinion, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress of the PRC (“SCNPC”) and the National Medical Products Administration (“NMPA”) have revised the fundamental laws, regulations and rules governing pharmaceutical products and the pharmaceutical industry, including the amendment of the framework law known as the People’s Republic of China Drug Administration Law (“PRC Drug Administration Law”), which became effective on December 1, 2019. The State Administration for Market Regulation (“SAMR”) has promulgated two key implementing regulations for the PRC Drug Administration Law: (i) the amended Administrative Measures for Drug Registration and (ii) the amended Measures on the Supervision and Administration of the Manufacture of Drugs. Both regulations took effect on July 1, 2020.

Rest of the World Regulation of Pharmaceutical Product Development and Approval

For other countries outside of Asia and the United States, such as countries in Europe, Latin America or other parts of Asia, the requirements governing the conduct of clinical trials, drug licensing, pricing and reimbursement vary from country to country. In all cases the clinical trials must be conducted in accordance with applicable GCP requirements and the applicable regulatory requirements and ethical principles.

If we fail to comply with applicable foreign regulatory requirements, we may be subject to, among other things, fines, suspension or withdrawal of regulatory approvals, product recalls, seizure of products, operating restrictions and criminal prosecution.

Other Healthcare Laws

Other U.S. Healthcare Laws

We may also be subject to healthcare regulation and enforcement by the U.S. federal government and the states where we may market our drug candidates, if approved. These laws include, without limitation, state and federal anti-kickback, fraud and abuse, false claims, privacy and security and transparency laws, such as the following:

federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which prohibit, among other things, persons from knowingly and willfully offering, soliciting, receiving or providing remuneration, directly or indirectly, to induce either the referral of an individual, for an item or service or the purchasing or ordering of a good or service, for which payment may be made under federal healthcare programs such as Medicare and Medicaid. A person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation;

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federal false claims laws, including the False Claim Act and the Civil Monetary Penalties Law, which prohibit, among other things, individuals or entities from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, information or claims for payment from Medicare, Medicaid, or other third-party payors that are false or fraudulent. In addition, a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the U.S. federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the federal civil False Claims Act;
the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (“HIPAA”), which prohibits, among other things, executing or attempting to execute a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program (including private health plans) or making false statements relating to healthcare matters. Similar to the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, a person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of the statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation;
the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (“FDCA”), which among other things, strictly regulates drug product and medical device marketing, prohibits manufacturers from marketing such products prior to approval or for off-label use and regulates the distribution of samples;
federal laws that require pharmaceutical manufacturers to report certain calculated product prices to the government or provide certain discounts or rebates to government authorities or private entities, often as a condition of reimbursement under government healthcare programs;
the federal Physician Payments Sunshine Act, which requires certain manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program (with certain exceptions) to report annually to the CMS, information related to payments or other transfers of value made to physicians (defined to include doctors, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists and chiropractors), other healthcare professionals (such as physician assistants and nurse practitioners) and teaching hospitals, as well as ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members;
HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (“HITECH”), and their implementing regulations, imposes obligations, including mandatory contractual terms, on “covered entities,” including certain healthcare providers, health plans, healthcare clearinghouses, and their respective “business associates,” and their subcontractors that create, receive, maintain or transmit individually identifiable health information for or on behalf of a covered entity, with respect to safeguarding the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information;
state law equivalents of the above federal laws, such as anti-kickback and false claims laws, which may apply to items or services reimbursed by any third-party payor, including private insurers, state transparency laws, state laws limiting interactions between pharmaceutical manufacturers and members of the healthcare industry, and state laws governing the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by federal laws, thus complicating compliance efforts.

We may also be subject to federal consumer protection and unfair competition laws, which broadly regulate marketplace activities and activities that potentially harm consumers.

Efforts to ensure that our activities comply with applicable healthcare laws may involve substantial costs. Many of these laws and their implementing regulations contain ambiguous requirements or require administrative guidance for implementation. Given the lack of clarity in laws and their implementation, our activities could be subject to challenge. If our operations were found to be in violation of any of these laws or any other governmental regulations that may apply to us, we could be subject to significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, including, without limitation, damages, fines, imprisonment, additional regulatory oversight and integrity monitoring, exclusion from participation in government healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations.

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Coverage and Reimbursement

U.S. Coverage and Reimbursement

Successful sales of our drug candidates in the U.S. market, if approved, will depend, in part, on the extent to which our drugs will be covered by third-party payors, such as government health programs or private health insurance (including managed care plans). Patients who are provided with prescriptions as part of their medical treatment generally rely on such third-party payors to reimburse all or part of the costs associated with their prescriptions and therefore adequate coverage and reimbursement from such third-party payors are critical to new and ongoing product acceptance. Coverage and reimbursement policies for drug products can differ significantly from payor to payor as there is no uniform policy of coverage and reimbursement for drug products among third-party payors in the United States. There may be significant delays in obtaining coverage and reimbursement as the process of determining coverage and reimbursement is often time consuming and costly. Further, third-party payors are increasingly reducing reimbursements for medical drugs and services and implementing measures to control utilization of drugs (such as requiring prior authorization for coverage).

Additionally, the containment of healthcare costs has become a priority of federal and state governments, and the prices of drugs have been a focus in this effort. The U.S. government, state legislatures and foreign governments have shown significant interest in implementing cost-containment programs, including price controls, restrictions on reimbursement and requirements for substitution of generic drugs. Adoption or expansion of price controls and cost-containment measures could further limit our net revenue and results. Decreases in third-party reimbursement for our drug candidates, if approved, or a decision by a third-party payor to not cover our drug candidates could have a material adverse effect on our sales, results of operations and financial condition.

General legislative cost control measures may also affect reimbursement for our products. If we obtain approval to market a drug candidate in the United States, we may be subject to spending reductions affecting Medicare, Medicaid or other publicly funded or subsidized health programs and/or any significant taxes or fees.

U.S. Health Care Reform

The United States government, state legislatures, and foreign governments have shown significant interest in implementing cost containment programs to limit the growth of government-paid healthcare costs, including price-controls, restrictions on reimbursement, and requirements for substitution of generic products for branded prescription drugs. For example, in March 2010, the Affordable Care Act (“ACA”) was passed which substantially changed the way healthcare is financed by both the government and private insurers and continues to significantly impact the U.S. pharmaceutical industry. The ACA contains provisions that may reduce the profitability of drug products through increased rebates for drugs reimbursed by Medicaid programs, extension of Medicaid rebates to Medicaid managed care plans, mandatory discounts for certain Medicare Part D beneficiaries and annual fees based on pharmaceutical companies’ share of sales to federal health care programs. There have been judicial, Congressional and executive branch challenges to certain aspects of the ACA, including efforts to repeal or replace certain aspects of the ACA. For example, on June 17, 2021 the U.S. Supreme Court dismissed a challenge on procedural grounds that argued the ACA is unconstitutional in its entirety because the individual mandate was repealed by Congress. In addition, on August 16, 2022, President Biden signed the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 (“IRA”) into law, which among other things, extends enhanced subsidies for individuals purchasing health insurance coverage in ACA marketplaces through plan year 2025. The IRA also eliminates the “donut hole” under the Medicare Part D program beginning in 2025 by significantly lowering the beneficiary maximum out-of-pocket cost and through a newly established manufacturer discount program.

Additionally, there has been heightened governmental scrutiny in the United States of pharmaceutical pricing practices in light of the rising cost of prescription drugs and biologics. Such scrutiny has resulted in several recent Congressional inquiries, presidential executive orders and proposed and enacted federal and state

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legislation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to product pricing, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, and reform government program reimbursement methodologies for products. For example, in July 2021, the Biden administration released an executive order with multiple provisions aimed at prescription drugs. In response to Biden’s executive order, on September 9, 2021, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”) released a Comprehensive Plan for Addressing High Drug Prices that outlines principles for drug pricing reform and sets out a variety of potential legislative policies that Congress could pursue to advance these principles. In addition, the IRA, among other things, (1) directs the HHS to negotiate the price of certain single-source drugs and biologics covered under Medicare and (2) imposes rebates under Medicare Part B and Medicare Part D to penalize price increases that outpace inflation. These provisions will take effect progressively starting in fiscal year 2023. On August 29, 2023, HHS announced the list of the first ten drugs that will be subject to price negotiations, although the Medicare drug price negotiation program is currently subject to legal challenges. In response to the Biden administration’s October 2022 executive order, on February 14, 2023, HHS released a report outlining three new models for testing by the CMS Innovation Center which will be evaluated on their ability to lower the cost of drugs, promote accessibility, and improve quality of care. It is unclear whether the models will be utilized in any health reform measures in the future. Further, on December 7, 2023, the Biden administration announced an initiative to control the price of prescription drugs through the use of march-in rights under the Bayh-Dole Act. On December 8, 2023, the National Institute of Standards and Technology published for comment a Draft Interagency Guidance Framework for Considering the Exercise of March-In Rights which for the first time includes the price of a product as one factor an agency can use when deciding to exercise march-in rights. While march-in rights have not previously been exercised, it is uncertain if that will continue under the new framework.

Other Significant Chinese Regulation Affecting Our Business Activities in China

Chinese Regulation of Foreign Investment

The establishment, operation and management of corporate entities in China are governed by the Company Law of the People’s Republic of China (the “PRC Company Law”), which was adopted by the SCNPC in December 1993, implemented in July 1994, and subsequently amended in December 1999, August 2004, October 2005, December 2013 and October 2018. Under the PRC Company Law, companies are generally classified into two categories: limited liability companies and companies limited by shares. The PRC Company Law also applies to foreign-invested limited liability companies. Pursuant to the PRC Company Law, where laws on foreign investment have other stipulations, such stipulations shall prevail. The most recent amendment of the PRC Company Law was adopted in December 2023 and will come into effect on July 1, 2024, which introduced multiple updates to the current PRC Company Law with regard to, among others, the capital contribution liability, corporate governance structure and responsibilities of directors, supervisors, senior managers, controlling shareholders and actual controllers.

Investment activities in China by foreign investors are governed by the Guiding Foreign Investment Direction, which was promulgated by the State Council on February 11, 2002 and came into effect on April 1, 2002, and the latest Special Administrative Measures (Negative List) for Foreign Investment Access (2021) (the “Negative List”), which was promulgated by the Ministry of Commerce of the People’s Republic of China (“MOFCOM”), and National Development and Reform Commission (“NDRC”), on December 27, 2021 and took effect on January 1, 2022. The Negative List set out in a unified manner the restrictive measures, such as the requirements on shareholding percentages and management, for the access of foreign investments, and the industries that are prohibited for foreign investment. The Negative List covers 12 industries, and any field not falling in the Negative List shall be administered under the principle of equal treatment to domestic and foreign investment.

The Foreign Investment Law of the People’s Republic of China (the “Foreign Investment Law”) was promulgated by the National People’s Congress (“NPC”) in March 2019 and became effective in January 2020. After the Foreign Investment Law came into force, the Law on Wholly Foreign-Owned Enterprises of the People’s Republic of China, the Law on Sino-foreign Equity Joint Ventures of the People’s Republic of China and the Law on Sino-foreign Contractual Joint Ventures of the People’s Republic of China

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have been repealed simultaneously. The investment activities of foreign natural persons, enterprises or other organizations (hereinafter referred to as foreign investors) directly or indirectly within the territory of China shall comply with and be governed by the Foreign Investment Law, including: (i) establishing by foreign investors of foreign-invested enterprises in China alone or jointly with other investors; (ii) acquiring by foreign investors of shares, equity, property shares, or other similar interests of Chinese domestic enterprises; (iii) investing by foreign investors in new projects in China alone or jointly with other investors; (iv) other forms of investment prescribed by laws, administrative regulations or the State Council.

In December 2019, the State Council issued the Regulations on Implementing the Foreign Investment Law, which came into effect in January 2020. After the Regulations on Implementing the Foreign Investment Law came into effect, the Regulation on Implementing the Sino-Foreign Equity Joint Venture Enterprise Law, Provisional Regulations on the Duration of Sino-Foreign Equity Joint Venture Enterprise, the Regulations on Implementing the Wholly Foreign-Owned Enterprise Law and the Regulations on Implementing the Sino-Foreign Cooperative Joint Venture Enterprise Law have been repealed simultaneously.

In December 2019, the MOFCOM and the SAMR issued the Measures for the Reporting of Foreign Investment Information, which came into effect in January 2020. After the Measures for the Reporting of Foreign Investment Information came into effect, the Interim Measures on the Administration of Filing for Establishment and Change of Foreign Investment Enterprises has been repealed simultaneously. Since January 1, 2020, for foreign investors carrying out investment activities directly or indirectly in China, the foreign investors or foreign-invested enterprises shall submit investment information to the relevant commerce administrative authorities pursuant to these measures.

Chinese Regulation of Commercial Bribery

Pursuant to specific provisions in the amended People’s Republic of China Anti-Unfair Competition Law, commercial bribery is prohibited. Both the bribe giver and bribe recipient are subject to civil and criminal liability. Further, pharmaceutical companies involved in a criminal investigation or administrative proceedings related to bribery are listed in the Adverse Records of Commercial Briberies by its provincial health and family planning administrative department. Pursuant to the Provisions on the Establishment of Adverse Records of Commercial Briberies in the Medicine Purchase and Sales Industry, which became effective on March 1, 2014, provincial health and family planning administrative departments formulate the implementing measures for the establishment of Adverse Records of Commercial Briberies. If a pharmaceutical company is listed in the Adverse Records of Commercial Briberies for the first time, their production is not required to be purchased by public medical institutions. A pharmaceutical company will not be penalized by the relevant Chinese government authorities merely by virtue of having contractual relationships with distributors or third-party promoters who are engaged in bribery activities, so long as such pharmaceutical company and its employees are not utilizing the distributors or third-party promoters for the implementation of, or acting in conjunction with them in, the prohibited bribery activities. In addition, a pharmaceutical company is under no legal obligation to monitor the operating activities of its distributors and third-party promoters, and it will not be subject to penalties or sanctions by relevant Chinese government authorities as a result of failure to monitor their operating activities.

Chinese Regulation of Product Liability

In addition to the strict new drug approval process, certain Chinese laws have been promulgated to protect the rights of consumers and to strengthen the control of medical products in China. Under current Chinese law, manufacturers and vendors of defective products in China may incur liability for loss and injury caused by such products. Pursuant to the General Principles of the Civil Law of the People’s Republic of China (“PRC Civil Law”) promulgated on April 12, 1986 and amended on August 27, 2009, a defective product which causes property damage or physical injury to any person may subject the manufacturer or vendor of such product to civil liability for such damage or injury. The Civil Code of the People’s Republic of China (“PRC Civil Code”), which was promulgated in May 2020 and became effective on January 1, 2021, amalgamates and replaces a series of specialized laws in civil law area, including the PRC Civil Law. The rules on product liability in the PRC Civil Code remain consistent with the rules in the PRC Civil Law.

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On February 22, 1993, the Product Quality Law of the People’s Republic of China (“Product Quality Law”) was promulgated to supplement the PRC Civil Law aiming to protect the legitimate rights and interests of the end-users and consumers and to strengthen the supervision and control of the quality of products. The Product Quality Law was revised on July 8, 2000, August 27, 2009 and December 29, 2018 respectively. Pursuant to the revised Product Quality Law, manufacturers who produce defective products may be subject to civil or criminal liability and have their business licenses revoked.

The Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of the Rights and Interests of Consumers was promulgated on October 31, 1993 and was amended on August 27, 2009 and October 25, 2013 to protect consumers’ rights when they purchase or use goods and accept services. According to which, all business operators must comply with this law when they manufacture or sell goods and/or provide services to customers. Under the amendment on October 25, 2013, all business operators shall pay high attention to protect the customers’ privacy and strictly keep confidential any consumer information they obtain during the business operation. In addition, in extreme situations, pharmaceutical product manufacturers and operators may be subject to criminal liability if their goods or services lead to the death or injuries of customers or other third parties.

Chinese Tort Law

Under the Tort Law of the People’s Republic of China (“Tort Law”), which became effective on July 1, 2010, if damages to other persons are caused by defective products due to the fault of a third party, such as the parties providing transportation or warehousing, the producers and the sellers of the products have the right to recover their respective losses from such third parties. If defective products are identified after they have been put into circulation, the producers or the sellers shall take remedial measures such as the issuance of a warning, or the recall of products in a timely manner. The producers or the sellers shall be liable under tort if they fail to take remedial measures in a timely manner or have not made efforts to take remedial measures, thus causing damages. If the products are produced or sold with known defects, causing deaths or severe adverse health issues, the infringed party has the right to claim punitive damages in addition to compensatory damages. The PRC Civil Code amalgamated and replaced the Tort Law effective January 1, 2021. The rules on tort in the PRC Civil Code are generally consistent with the Tort Law.

Chinese Regulation of Intellectual Property Rights

China has made substantial efforts to adopt comprehensive legislation governing intellectual property rights, including patents, trademarks, copyrights and domain names.

Patents

Pursuant to the Patent Law of the People’s Republic of China (the “PRC Patent Law”), most recently amended in December 2008 and October 2020, and its implementation rules, most recently amended in January 2024, patents in China fall into three categories: invention, utility model and design. An invention patent is granted to a new technical solution proposed in respect of a product or method or an improvement of a product or method. A utility model is granted to a new technical solution that is practicable for application and proposed in respect of the shape, structure or a combination of both of a product. A design patent is granted to the new design of a certain product in shape, pattern or a combination of both and in color, shape and pattern combinations aesthetically suitable for industrial application. Under the PRC Patent Law, the term of patent protection starts from the date of application. Patents relating to invention are effective for twenty years, and utility models and designs are effective for ten and fifteen years, respectively, from the date of application. The PRC Patent Law adopts the principle of “first-to-file” system, which provides that where more than one person files a patent application for the same invention, a patent will be granted to the person who files the application first.

Existing patents can become narrowed, invalid or unenforceable due to a variety of grounds, including lack of novelty, creativity, and deficiencies in patent application. In China, a patent must have novelty, creativity and practical applicability. Under the PRC Patent Law, novelty means that before a patent application is filed, no

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identical invention or utility model has been publicly disclosed in any publication in China or overseas or has been publicly used or made known to the public by any other means, whether in or outside of China, nor has any other person filed with the patent authority an application that describes an identical invention or utility model and is recorded in patent application documents or patent documents published after the filing date. Creativity means that, compared with existing technology, an invention has prominent substantial features and represents notable progress, and a utility model has substantial features and represents any progress. Practical applicability means an invention or utility model can be manufactured or used and may produce positive results. Patents in China are filed with the China National Intellectual Property Administration (“CNIPA”). Normally, the CNIPA publishes an application for an invention patent within 18 months after the filing date, which may be shortened at the request of applicant. The applicant must apply to the CNIPA for a substantive examination within three years from the date of application.

Article 19 of the PRC Patent Law provides that, for an invention or utility model completed in China, any applicant (not just Chinese companies and individuals), before filing a patent application outside of China, must first submit it to the CNIPA for a confidential examination. Failure to comply with this requirement will result in the denial of any Chinese patent for the relevant invention. The PRC Patent Law also sets up the framework and adds the provisions for patent linkage and patent term extension.

Patent Enforcement

Unauthorized use of patents without consent from owners of patents, forgery of the patents belonging to other persons, or engagement in other patent infringement acts, will subject the infringers to infringement liability. Serious offenses such as forgery of patents may be subject to criminal penalties.

When a dispute arises out of infringement of the patent owner’s patent right, Chinese law requires that the parties first attempt to settle the dispute through mutual consultation. However, if the dispute cannot be settled through mutual consultation, the patent owner, or an interested party who believes the patent is being infringed, may either file a civil legal suit or file an administrative complaint with the relevant patent administration authority. A Chinese court may issue a preliminary injunction upon the patent owner’s or an interested party’s request before instituting any legal proceedings or during the proceedings. Damages for infringement are calculated as the loss suffered by the patent holder arising from the infringement, or the benefit gained by the infringer from the infringement. If it is difficult to ascertain damages in this manner, damages may be determined by using a reasonable multiple of the license fee under a contractual license. Statutory damages may be awarded in the circumstances where the damages cannot be determined by the calculation standards referenced above. The damage calculation methods shall be applied in the aforementioned order. Generally, the patent owner has the burden of proving that the patent is being infringed. However, if the owner of an invention patent for manufacturing process of a new product alleges infringement of its patent, the alleged infringer has the burden of proof.

The most recent amendment to the PRC Patent Law, which was promulgated by the SCNPC in October 2020 and became effective in June 2021, describes the general principles of linking generic drug applications to pharmaceutical patent protection, also known as Patent Linkage. In July 2021, the NMPA and the CNIPA jointly published the Measures for Implementing an Early-Stage Resolution Mechanism for Pharmaceutical Patent Disputes (Tentative) (“Measures on Patent Linkage”), providing an operating mechanism for Patent Linkage. Upon notification of generic applications and certifications, if the patentee or the interested person disagrees, the patentee or the interested person will need to file a claim with the court or the CNIPA within 45 days after the Center for Drug Evaluation (“CDE’s”) publication and must submit a copy of the case acceptance notification to the CDE within 15 working days after the case acceptance date. Otherwise, the NMPA can proceed with the technical review and approval. For chemical drugs, the NMPA would initiate a nine-month approval stay period upon notification. If the patentee or the interested person cannot secure a favorable court judgment or a decision from the CNIPA within the nine-month period, the NMPA can grant marketing authorization to the generic applicant after the nine-month period expires.

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Medical Patent Compulsory License

According to the PRC Patent Law, for the purpose of public health, the CNIPA may grant a compulsory license for manufacturing patented drugs and exporting them to countries or regions covered under relevant international treaties to which China has acceded.

Exemptions for Unlicensed Manufacture, Use, Sale or Import of Patented Products

The PRC Patent Law provides five exceptions permitting the unauthorized manufacture, use, sale or import of patented products. None of following circumstances are deemed an infringement of the patent rights, and any person may manufacture, use, sell or import patented products without authorization granted by the patent owner as follows:

Any person who uses, promises to sell, sells or imports any patented product or product directly obtained in accordance with the patented methods after such product is sold by the patent owner or by its licensed entity or individual;
Any person who has manufactured an identical product, has used an identical method or has made necessary preparations for manufacture or use prior to the date of patent application and continues to manufacture such product or use such method only within the original scope;
Any foreign transportation facility that temporarily passes through the territory, territorial waters or territorial airspace of China and uses the relevant patents in its devices and installations for its own needs in accordance with any agreement concluded between China and that country to which the foreign transportation facility belongs, or any international treaty to which both countries are party, or on the basis of the principle of reciprocity;
Any person who uses the relevant patents solely for the purposes of scientific research and experimentation; or
Any person who manufactures, uses or imports patented drug or patented medical equipment for the purpose of providing information required for administrative approval, or manufactures, uses or imports patented drugs or patented medical equipment for the abovementioned person.

However, if patented drugs are utilized on the ground of exemptions for unauthorized manufacture, use, sale or import of patented drugs prescribed in PRC Patent Law, such patented drugs cannot be manufactured, used, sold or imported for any commercial purposes without authorization granted by the patent owner.

Trade Secrets

According to the People’s Republic of China Anti-Unfair Competition Law promulgated by the SCNPC on September 2, 1993, as amended on November 4, 2017 and on April 23, 2019 (collectively, the “PRC Anti-Unfair Competition Law”), the term “trade secrets” refers to technical and business information that is unknown to the public that has utility and may create business interests or profits for its legal owners or holders, and is maintained as a secret by its legal owners or holders.

Under the PRC Anti-Unfair Competition Law, business persons are prohibited from infringing others’ trade secrets by: (i) obtaining the trade secrets from the legal owners or holders by any unfair methods such as theft, bribery, fraud, coercion, electronic intrusion, or any other illicit means; (ii) disclosing, using or permitting others to use the trade secrets obtained illegally under item (i) above; (iii) disclosing, using or permitting others to use the trade secrets, in violation of any contractual agreements or any requirements of the legal owners or holders to keep such trade secrets in confidence; or (iv) instigating, inducing or assisting others to violate confidentiality obligation or to violate a rights holder’s requirements on keeping confidentiality of trade secrets, disclosing, using or permitting others to use the trade secrets of the rights holder. If a third party knows or should have known of such illegal conduct but nevertheless obtains, uses or discloses trade secrets of others trade secrets, the third party may be deemed to have committed a misappropriation of the others’ trade secrets.

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Trademarks and Domain Names

Trademarks. According to the Trademark Law of the People’s Republic of China, promulgated by the SCNPC in August 1982, as amended in February 1993, October 2001, August 2013 and April 2019 and its implementation rules (collectively, the “Trademark Law”), the Trademark Office of the National Intellectual Property Administration is responsible for the registration and administration of trademarks throughout China. The Trademark Law has adopted a “first-to-file” principle with respect to trademark registration.

Domain Names. Domain names are protected under the Administrative Measures on the Internet Domain Names promulgated by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology in August 2017 and effective November 2017. The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology is the main regulatory body responsible for the administration of Chinese internet domain names.

Chinese Regulation of Labor Protection

Under the Labor Law of the People’s Republic of China, effective on January 1, 1995 and subsequently amended on August 27, 2009 and December 29, 2018, the Employment Contract Law of the People’s Republic of China, effective on January 1, 2008 and subsequently amended on December 28, 2012 and the Implementing Regulations of the Employment Contract Law, effective on September 18, 2008, employers must establish a comprehensive management system to protect the rights of their employees, including a system governing occupational health and safety to provide employees with occupational training to prevent occupational injury, and employers are required to truthfully inform prospective employees of the job description, working conditions, location, occupational hazards and status of safe production as well as remuneration and other conditions as requested by the Labor Contract Law of the People’s Republic of China.

Pursuant to the Law of Manufacturing Safety of the People’s Republic of China effective on November 1, 2002 and amended on August 27, 2009, August 31, 2014 and June 10, 2021, manufacturers must establish a comprehensive management system to ensure manufacturing safety in accordance with applicable laws, regulations, national standards, and industrial standards. Manufacturers not meeting relevant legal requirements are not permitted to commence their manufacturing activities.

Pursuant to the Administrative Measures Governing the Production Quality of Pharmaceutical Products effective on March 1, 2011, manufacturers of pharmaceutical products are required to establish production safety and labor protection measures in connection with the operation of their manufacturing equipment and manufacturing process.

Pursuant to applicable Chinese laws, rules and regulations, including the Social Insurance Law which became effective on July 1, 2011 and amended on December 29, 2018, the Interim Regulations on the Collection and Payment of Social Security Funds, which became effective on January 22, 1999 and amended on March 24, 2019, Interim Measures concerning the Maternity Insurance of Employees, which became effective on January 1, 1995, and the Regulations on Work-related Injury Insurance, which became effective on January 1, 2004 and was subsequently amended on December 20, 2010, employers are required to contribute, on behalf of their employees, to a number of social security funds, including funds for basic pension insurance, unemployment insurance, basic medical insurance, work-related injury insurance and maternity insurance. If an employer fails to make social insurance contributions timely and in full, the social insurance collecting authority will order the employer to make up outstanding contributions within the prescribed time period and impose a late payment fee at the rate of 0.05% per day from the date on which the contribution becomes due. If such employer fails to make the overdue contributions within such time limit, the relevant administrative department may impose a fine equivalent to one to three times the overdue amount.

Regulations Relating to Foreign Exchange Registration of Offshore Investment by Chinese Residents

In July 2014, the State Administration of Foreign Exchange (“SAFE”), issued SAFE Circular 37 and its implementation guidelines. Pursuant to SAFE Circular 37 and its implementation guidelines, residents of

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China (including Chinese institutions and individuals) must register with local branches of SAFE in connection with their direct or indirect offshore investment in an overseas special purpose vehicle (“SPV”), directly established or indirectly controlled by Chinese residents for the purposes of offshore investment and financing with their legally owned assets or interests in domestic enterprises, or their legally owned offshore assets or interests. Such Chinese residents are also required to amend their registrations with SAFE when there is a change to the basic information of the SPV, such as changes of a Chinese resident individual shareholder, the name or operating period of the SPV, or when there is a significant change to the SPV, such as changes of the Chinese individual resident’s increase or decrease of its capital contribution in the SPV, or any share transfer or exchange, merger, division of the SPV. Failure to comply with the registration procedures set forth in the SAFE Circular 37 may result in restrictions being imposed on the foreign exchange activities of the relevant onshore company, including the payment of dividends and other distributions to its offshore parent or affiliate, the capital inflow from the offshore entities and settlement of foreign exchange capital, and may also subject relevant onshore companies or Chinese residents to penalties under Chinese foreign exchange administration regulations.

Regulations Relating to Employee Stock Incentive Plan

In February 2012, SAFE promulgated the Notices on Issues Concerning the Foreign Exchange Administration for Domestic Individuals Participating in Stock Incentive Plans of Overseas Publicly Listed Companies (the “Stock Option Rules”). In accordance with the Stock Option Rules and relevant rules and regulations, Chinese citizens or non-Chinese citizens residing in China for a continuous period of not less than one year, who participate in any stock incentive plan of an overseas publicly listed company, subject to a few exceptions, are required to register with SAFE through a domestic qualified agent, which could be a Chinese subsidiary of such overseas listed company, and complete certain procedures. We and our employees who are Chinese citizens or who reside in China for a continuous period of not less than one year and who participate in our stock incentive plan are subject to such regulation. In addition, the State Taxation Administration of the PRC, or SAT, has issued circulars concerning employee stock options or restricted shares. Under these circulars, employees working in China who exercise stock options, or whose restricted shares vest, will be subject to Chinese individual income tax (“IIT”). The Chinese subsidiaries of an overseas listed company have obligations to file documents related to employee stock options or restricted shares with relevant tax authorities and to withhold IIT of those employees related to their stock options or restricted shares. If the employees fail to pay, or the Chinese subsidiaries fail to withhold, their IIT according to relevant laws, rules and regulations, the Chinese subsidiaries may face sanctions imposed by the tax authorities or other Chinese government authorities.

Regulations Relating to Dividend Distribution

Pursuant to the PRC Company Law and Foreign Investment Law, and Regulations on Implementing the Foreign Investment Law of the People’s Republic of China, foreign investors may freely remit into or out of China, in RMB or any other foreign currency, their capital contributions, profits, capital gains, income from asset disposal, intellectual property royalties, lawfully acquired compensation, indemnity or liquidation income and so on within the territory of China.

In January 2017, SAFE issued the Notice on Improving the Check of Authenticity and Compliance to Further Promote Foreign Exchange Control, which stipulates several capital control measures with respect to outbound remittance of profits from domestic entities to offshore entities, including the following: (i) under the principle of genuine transaction, banks shall check board resolutions regarding profit distribution, the original version of tax filing records and audited financial statements; and (ii) domestic entities shall hold income to account for previous years’ losses before remitting the profits. Moreover, domestic entities shall provide detailed explanations of the sources of capital and the utilization arrangements and board resolutions, contracts and other proof when completing the registration procedures in connection with an outbound investment.

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Regulations Relating to Foreign Exchange

The principal regulations governing foreign currency exchange in China are the Foreign Exchange Administration Regulations, most recently amended in August 2008. Under the Foreign Exchange Administration Regulations, payments of current account items, such as profit distributions and trade and service-related foreign exchange transactions can be made in foreign currencies without prior approval from SAFE by complying with certain procedural requirements. However, approval from or registration with appropriate government authorities is required where RMB is to be converted into foreign currency and remitted out of China to pay capital expenses such as the repayment of foreign currency-denominated loans.

In August 2008, SAFE issued the Circular on the Relevant Operating Issues Concerning the Improvement of the Administration of the Payment and Settlement of Foreign Currency Capital of Foreign-Invested Enterprises (“SAFE Circular 142”), regulating the conversion by a foreign-invested enterprise of foreign currency-registered capital into RMB by restricting how the converted RMB may be used. SAFE Circular 142 provides that the RMB capital converted from foreign currency registered capital of a foreign-invested enterprise may only be used for purposes within the business scope approved by the applicable government authority and may not be used for equity investments within China. SAFE also strengthened its oversight of the flow and use of the RMB capital converted from foreign currency registered capital of foreign-invested enterprises. The use of such RMB capital may not be changed without SAFE’s approval, and such RMB capital may not in any case be used to repay RMB loans if the proceeds of such loans have not been used. In March 2015, SAFE issued the Circular of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Reforming the Management Approach regarding the Settlement of Foreign Exchange Capital of Foreign-invested Enterprises (“SAFE Circular 19”), which became effective and replaced SAFE Circular 142 on June 1, 2015. Although SAFE Circular 19 allows for the use of RMB converted from the foreign currency- denominated capital for equity investments in China, the restrictions continue to apply as to foreign-invested enterprises’ use of the converted RMB for purposes beyond the business scope, for entrusted loans or for inter-company RMB loans. SAFE promulgated the Notice of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Reforming and Standardizing the Foreign Exchange Settlement Management Policy of Capital Account (“SAFE Circular 16”), effective on June 9, 2016, which reiterates some of the rules set forth in SAFE Circular 19, but changes the prohibition against using RMB capital converted from foreign currency-denominated registered capital of a foreign-invested company to issue RMB entrusted loans to a prohibition against using such capital to issue loans to unassociated enterprises. On December 4, 2023, SAFE promulgated the Notice of the State Administration of Foreign Exchange on Further Deepening the Reform and Promoting Facilitation of Cross-border Trade and Investment (“SAFE Circular 28”), which further updates the restrictions on use of RMB converted from the foreign currency- denominated capital. Violations of SAFE Circular 19, SAFE Circular 16 or SAFE Circular 28 could result in administrative penalties.

The Circular of Further Improving and Adjusting Foreign Exchange Administration Policies on Foreign Direct Investment was promulgated by SAFE in November 2012 and amended in May 2015, which substantially amends and simplifies the current foreign exchange procedure. Pursuant to this circular, the opening of various special purpose foreign exchange accounts (e.g., pre-establishment expenses accounts, foreign exchange capital accounts and guarantee accounts), the reinvestment of lawful incomes derived by foreign investors in China (e.g., profit, proceeds of equity transfer, capital reduction, liquidation and early repatriation of investment), and purchase and remittance of foreign exchange as a result of capital reduction, liquidation, early repatriation or share transfer in a foreign-invested enterprise no longer require SAFE approval, and multiple capital accounts for the same entity may be opened in different provinces, which was not possible before. In addition, SAFE promulgated the Circular on Printing and Distributing the Provisions on Foreign Exchange Administration over Domestic Direct Investment by Foreign Investors and the Supporting Documents in May 2013, which specifies that the administration by SAFE or its local branches over direct investment by foreign investors in China shall be conducted by way of registration and banks shall process foreign exchange business relating to the direct investment in China based on the registration information provided by SAFE and its branches.

In February 2015, SAFE promulgated the Circular on Further Simplifying and Improving the Policies Concerning Foreign Exchange Control on Direct Investment (“SAFE Circular 13”), which took effect on

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June 1, 2015. SAFE Circular 13 delegates the authority to enforce the foreign exchange registration in connection with the inbound and outbound direct investment under relevant SAFE rules to certain banks and therefore further simplifies the foreign exchange registration procedures for inbound and outbound direct investment.

Regulations on Securities Offering and Listing Outside of China

On February 17, 2023, the CSRC promulgated a new set of regulations consisting of the Trial Administrative Measures of Overseas Securities Offering and Listing by Domestic Companies (the “Trial Measures”) and five supporting guidelines which came into effect on March 31, 2023 to regulate overseas securities offering and listing activities by domestic companies either in direct or indirect form.

The Trial Measures and supporting guidelines apply to overseas offerings by domestic companies of equity shares, depositary receipts, convertible corporate bonds, or other equity-like securities, and overseas listing of the securities for trading. Both direct and indirect overseas securities offering and listing by domestic companies would be regulated, of which the former refers to securities offering and listing in an overseas market made by a joint-stock company incorporated domestically, and the latter refers to securities offering and listing in an overseas market made in the name of an offshore entity, while based on the underlying equity, assets, earnings or other similar rights of a domestic company which operates its main business domestically. According to the Trial Measures, if an issuer meets the following conditions, the offering and listing shall be determined as an indirect overseas offering and listing by a domestic company: (i) the total assets, net assets, revenues or gross profits of the domestic company(ies) of the issuer in the most recent financial year account for more than 50% of the corresponding figure in the issuer’s audited consolidated financial statements over the same period; (ii) the majority of the senior management in charge of business operation and management of the issuer are Chinese citizens or habitually reside in China, or its main places of business operation are located in China or main parts of its business activities are conducted in China.

Under the Trial Measures and supporting guidelines, a filing-based regulatory system was implemented covering both direct and indirect overseas offering and listing. For an indirect initial public offering and listing in an overseas market, the issuer shall designate a major domestic operating entity to submit the filing documents to the CSRC, including but not limited to the prospectus within three working days after such application of overseas offering and listing is submitted. The CSRC would, within 20 working days if filing documents are complete and in compliance with the stipulated requirements, complete the filing and publish the filing information on the CSRC’s official website. While for confidential filings of overseas offering and listing application documents, the designated filing entity may apply for an extension of the publication of such filing. The issuer shall report to the CSRC within three working days after the overseas offering and listing application documents become public. In addition, subsequent securities offerings of an issuer in the same overseas market where it has previously offered and listed securities shall be filed with the CSRC within three working days after the offering is completed.

Meanwhile, overseas offering and listing would be prohibited under certain circumstances, including but not limited to that (i) the offering and listing are expressly forbidden by the Chinese laws, regulations and relevant rules; (ii) the intended overseas securities offering and listing may endanger national security as reviewed and determined by competent authorities under the State Council in accordance with laws or (iii) there are material disputes with regard to the ownership of the equity held by the domestic company’s controlling shareholder or by other shareholders that are controlled by the controlling shareholder and/or actual controller. If a domestic company falls into the circumstances where overseas offering and listing is prohibited prior to the overseas offering and listing, the domestic company shall postpone or terminate the intended overseas offering and listing, and report to the CSRC and competent authorities under the State Council in a timely manner.

If domestic companies fail to fulfill the above-mentioned filing procedures or offer and list in an overseas market against the prohibited circumstances, they would be warned and fined up to RMB 10 million. The controlling shareholders and actual controllers of such domestic companies that organize or instruct the

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aforementioned violations would be fined up to RMB10 million and directly liable persons-in-charge and other directly liable persons would be each fined up to RMB 5 million.

Other Chinese National- and Provincial-Level Laws and Regulations

We are subject to changing regulations under many other laws and regulations administered by governmental authorities at the national, provincial and municipal levels, some of which are or may become applicable to our business. For example, regulations control the confidentiality of patients’ medical information and the circumstances under which patient medical information may be released for inclusion in our databases, or released by us to third parties. These laws and regulations governing both the disclosure and the use of confidential patient medical information may become more restrictive in the future.

Employees and Human Capital Resources

As of December 31, 2023, we had 93 full-time employees, 35 of whom have a Ph.D. or M.D. Of these 93 employees, 66 were engaged in research and development activities and 27 were engaged in business development, finance, information systems, facilities, human resources or administrative support. Four of the non-research and development-based employees were based in Shanghai, China and one based in the UK, while the other 22 resided in the United States. None of our employees are represented by labor unions or covered by collective bargaining agreements. We consider our relationship with our employees to be good.

Our human capital resources objectives include, as applicable, identifying, recruiting, retaining, incentivizing and integrating our existing and new employees, advisors and consultants. The principal purposes of our equity incentive plans are to attract, retain and reward personnel through the granting of equity-based compensation awards in order to increase shareholder value and the success of our company by motivating such individuals to perform to the best of their abilities and achieve our objectives.

Corporate Information

We are a Cayman Islands exempted company incorporated with limited liability. We were initially formed as a Delaware corporation in 2016 under the name ShouTi Inc., and reorganized as a Cayman Islands exempted company in 2019. We completed our IPO on February 7, 2023, and our ADS began trading on the Nasdaq Global Market on February 3, 2023.

Our principal executive office is located at 601 Gateway Blvd., Suite 900, South San Francisco, California 94080 and our telephone number is (628) 229-9277. The principal executive office of our research and development operations is located at Unit 01, 11th floor, Lane 2889, Jinke Road, Pudong New Area, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China, 201203. Our telephone number at this address is 86 21 61215839. Our current registered office in the Cayman Islands is located at the offices of International Corporation Services Ltd., P.O, Box 472, 2nd Floor, Harbour Place, 103 South Church Street, George Town, Grand Cayman KY1-1106, Cayman Islands.

Our website is www.structuretx.com. Information contained on, or accessible through, our website shall not be deemed incorporated into, and is not a part of, this Annual Report. We have included our website in this Annual Report solely as an inactive textual reference.

Available Information

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Sections 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act are available on our website, free of charge, as soon as reasonably practicable after the reports are electronically filed or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC. The SEC maintains a website at www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information that we file with the SEC electronically.

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Item 1A. Risk Factors.

Investing in our securities, involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, together with all of the other information contained in this Annual Report, including our consolidated financial statements and their related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report and Part II. Item 7. “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” before making an investment decision. If any of the following risks actually occurs, our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition could suffer materially, the trading price of our ADSs could decline and you could lose all or part of your investment. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently believe to be immaterial also may materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition.

Risks Related to Our Limited Operating History, Financial Position and Capital Requirements

We have a limited operating history, have incurred significant operating losses since our inception and expect to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future.

Biopharmaceutical product development is a highly speculative undertaking and involves a substantial degree of risk. We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company with a limited operating history, which may make it difficult to evaluate the success of our business to date and assess our future viability. Since our inception in 2016, we have focused primarily on organizing and staffing our company, business planning, establishing our intellectual property portfolio, raising capital, developing our structure-based drug discovery platform, identifying and developing our product candidates, conducting preclinical studies and, more recently, clinical trials, and providing general and administrative support for these operations. Our approach to the discovery and development of product candidates based on our structure-based drug discovery platform is unproven, and we do not know whether we will be able to develop any product candidates that succeed in clinical development or commercially. Further, GSBR-1290, our product candidate for T2DM and obesity, and ANPA-0073, our product candidate for IPF, are in early clinical development and our other product candidates and programs are in preclinical development or discovery stages. Accordingly, we have not yet demonstrated an ability to successfully obtain regulatory approvals, manufacture a commercial scale product or arrange for a third party to do so on our behalf, or conduct sales and marketing activities necessary for successful product commercialization. Consequently, any predictions made about our future success or viability may not be as accurate as they could be if we had a history of successfully developing and commercializing biopharmaceutical products.

We have no products approved for commercial sale and have not generated any revenue to date, and we continue to incur significant research and development and other expenses related to our ongoing operations. As a result, we are not profitable and have incurred significant losses since our inception and expect to continue to incur significant and increasing operating losses for at least the next several years. Our net losses were $89.6 million and $51.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively. As of December 31, 2023, we had an accumulated deficit of $206.6 million. Substantially all of our losses have resulted from expenses incurred in connection with our research and development programs and from general and administrative costs associated with our operations. All of our product candidates will require substantial additional development time and resources before we would be able to apply for or receive marketing approvals and begin generating revenue from product sales. We expect to continue to incur losses for the foreseeable future, and we anticipate that our expenses will increase substantially as we continue our development of, seek marketing approval for and potentially commercialize any of our product candidates, recruit and maintain key personnel and seek to identify, assess, acquire, in-license or develop additional product candidates.

Even if we succeed in developing and obtaining marketing approval for one or more product candidates, we may never generate revenue that is significant enough to achieve profitability. If we do achieve profitability, we may not be able to sustain or increase profitability on a quarterly or annual basis and we will continue to incur substantial research and development and other expenditures to develop and market additional product

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candidates. Our failure to become and remain profitable could decrease the value of our ADSs and impair our ability to raise capital, maintain our research and development efforts, expand our business or continue our operations.

We will require substantial additional capital to finance our operations, which may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all. Failure to obtain this necessary capital when needed may force us to delay, limit or terminate certain of our product development programs, commercialization efforts or other operations.

The development of biopharmaceutical product candidates is capital-intensive. We expect our expenses to increase substantially in connection with our ongoing and planned activities, particularly as we conduct our ongoing and planned preclinical studies and clinical trials of GSBR-1290, ANPA-0073, LTSE-2578 and any future product candidates we may develop. Our expenses will increase substantially if our product candidates successfully complete early clinical and other studies, and also could increase beyond expectations if the FDA or foreign authorities require us to perform clinical and other studies in addition to those that we currently anticipate. Because the outcome of any clinical trial or preclinical study is highly uncertain, we cannot reasonably estimate the actual amounts necessary to successfully complete the development and commercialization of our product candidates. In addition, we have and expect to continue to incur additional costs associated with operating as a public company. Furthermore, if we obtain marketing approval for our product candidates, we expect to incur significant expenses related to manufacturing, marketing, sales and distribution. Accordingly, we will need to obtain substantial additional funding in connection with our continuing operations. If we are unable to raise capital when needed or on attractive terms, we could be forced to delay, reduce or eliminate our research and development programs or any future commercialization efforts.

Based on our current operating plan, we believe that our cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments as of December 31, 2023 will be sufficient to fund our operating expenses and capital expenditure requirements through at least 2026. We have based these estimates on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and we could use our capital resources sooner than we currently expect. Our operating plan may change as a result of many factors currently unknown to us, and we may need to seek additional funds sooner than planned, through equity offerings, debt financings or other capital sources, including potentially grants, collaborations, licenses and other similar arrangements. Even if we believe we have sufficient capital for our current or future operating plans, we may seek additional capital if market conditions are favorable or if we have specific strategic considerations.

Any additional capital raising efforts may divert our management from their day-to-day activities, which may adversely affect our ability to develop and, if approved, commercialize our current and any future product candidates. Additional funding may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all. As a result of actual or anticipated changes in interest rates and economic inflation and the impact of the Russia/Ukraine conflict and Israel-Hamas war, the global credit and financial markets have experienced extreme volatility and disruptions, including severely diminished liquidity and credit availability, declines in consumer confidence, declines in economic growth, increases in unemployment rates, and uncertainty about economic stability. If the equity and credit markets deteriorate, including as a result of future bank failures, it may make any necessary debt or equity financing more difficult to obtain in a timely manner or on favorable terms, more costly or more dilutive.

Our future funding requirements will depend on many factors, including:

the progress, costs, design, results of and timing of our planned and ongoing preclinical studies and clinical trials;
the willingness of the FDA or applicable foreign authorities to accept our clinical trials, as well as data from our planned and ongoing preclinical studies and clinical trials and other work, as the basis for review and approval of our product candidates;

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the outcome, costs and timing of seeking and obtaining FDA and applicable foreign regulatory approvals;
the number and characteristics of product candidates that we pursue;
our need to expand our research and development capabilities, including further development of our structure-based drug discovery platform or in-licensing of complementary technologies;
the costs and timing associated with manufacturing our product candidates, and establishing commercial supplies and sales, marketing, and distribution capabilities;
our efforts to maintain, expand, and defend the scope of our intellectual property portfolio, including the amount and timing of any payments we may be required to make, or that we may receive, in connection with the licensing, filing, prosecution, defense, and enforcement of any patents or other intellectual property rights;
our need and ability to retain key management and hire scientific, technical, business, and medical personnel;
our need to implement additional internal systems and infrastructure, including financial and reporting systems;
the costs associated with operating as a public company;
the economic and other terms, timing of and success of our current and any future collaboration, licensing or other arrangements which we may enter in the future; and
the timing, receipt, and amount of sales from our potential products, if approved.

If we are unable to raise additional capital when needed, we may be required to delay, limit, reduce or terminate our product development or future commercialization efforts or grant rights to develop and market product candidates that we would otherwise prefer to develop and market ourselves, and our ability to grow and support our business and to respond to market challenges could be significantly limited, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Raising additional capital may cause dilution to our shareholders, restrict our operations or require us to relinquish rights to our technologies or product candidates.

Until such time, if ever, as we can generate substantial product revenue, we expect to finance our operations through equity offerings, debt financings or other capital sources, including potentially grants, collaborations, licenses or other similar arrangements. For example, in October 2023, we issued and sold an aggregate of 21,617,295 ordinary shares and 2,401,920 newly designated non-voting ordinary shares in the Private Placement. To the extent that we raise additional capital through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the ownership interest of our shareholders will be diluted, and the terms of these securities may include liquidation or other preferences that adversely affect the rights of our ADS holders. Debt financing, if available, may involve agreements that include covenants limiting or restricting our ability to take specific actions, such as limitations on our ability to incur additional debt, make capital expenditures or declare dividends. If we raise funds through collaborations or licensing arrangements with third parties, we may be required to relinquish valuable rights to our technologies, future revenue streams, research programs or product candidates or grant licenses on terms that may not be favorable to us.

Risks Related to the Discovery, Development and Regulatory Approval of Product Candidates

Our approach to the discovery of product candidates based on our technology platform is unproven, and we do not know whether we will be able to develop any products of commercial value.

The success of our business depends primarily upon our ability to identify novel product candidates based on our structure-based drug discovery platform and to successfully develop and commercialize those product candidates. While we have had favorable preclinical study results for certain of our development programs,

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we have not yet succeeded and may not succeed in demonstrating efficacy and safety for any product candidates in clinical trials or in obtaining marketing approvals or in commercializing such product candidates. We also may be unsuccessful in identifying additional product candidates using our platform, and any of our product candidates may be shown to have harmful side effects or may have other characteristics that may necessitate additional clinical testing, or make the product candidates unmarketable or unlikely to receive marketing approval. In particular, because all of our product candidates have been derived from our structure-based drug discovery platform, any failure of one of our development programs could create a perception that our other programs are less likely to succeed or that our discovery platform is not viable. Similarly, adverse developments with respect to other companies that attempt to use a similar approach to our approach may adversely impact the actual or perceived value and potential of our discovery platform and resulting product candidates.

If any of these events occur, our ability to successfully discover, develop and commercialize any product candidates may be impaired and the value of our company could decline significantly.

We are early in our development efforts and only have two product candidates, GSBR-1290 and ANPA-0073, in early clinical development. All of our other development programs are in the preclinical or discovery stage. If we are unable to advance our product candidates in clinical development, obtain regulatory approval and ultimately commercialize our product candidates, or experience significant delays in doing so, our business will be materially harmed.

We are in the early stages of our development efforts and have two product candidates, GSBR-1290 and ANPA-0073, in early clinical development. We completed a Phase 1 SAD study of GSBR-1290 in healthy volunteers in September 2022 for T2DM and obesity. Furthermore, we initiated the Phase 1b MAD study in January 2023 and completed dosing in otherwise healthy overweight subjects in March 2023. We also initiated the dosing of the Phase 2a study in May 2023. We reported topline data for the 28-day Phase 1b MAD study in September 2023, in which GSBR-1290 was generally well-tolerated with no adverse event-related discontinuations and demonstrated an encouraging safety profile and significant weight loss up to 4.9% placebo-adjusted, supporting once-daily dosing. We also reported topline data for the 12-week Phase 2a clinical trial in December 2023, in which GSBR-1290 was generally well-tolerated with no treatment-related SAEs, no AE-related discontinuation in obesity and only one adverse event-related discontinuation in T2DM. Furthermore, GSBR-1290 demonstrated significant reductions in HbA1c and weight at 12 weeks in T2DM. We further reported interim Phase 2a obesity cohort data, in which GSBR-1290 demonstrated significant reductions in weight at 8 weeks. We expect to report the full 12-week obesity data in the latter half of the second quarter of 2024. We also reported results from a Japanese ethno-bridging study and findings from 6- and 9-month toxicology studies demonstrating encouraging safety to support advancing into Phase 2b development. The additional formulation bridging study to evaluate a tablet formulation of GSBR-1290 is expected to be completed in the latter half of the second quarter of 2024. Pending supportive data from this bridging study, the tablet formulation would be used in future GSBR-1290 studies starting with the Phase 2b study for obesity and an additional Phase 2 study for T2DM, which we expect to initiate both in the second half of 2024. Additionally, we completed our Phase 1 SAD and MAD study for ANPA-0073 in healthy volunteers for IPF in September 2022. We expect to conduct additional preclinical studies of ANPA-0073 for its effects in selective weight loss. Our other product candidates are still in the preclinical or discovery stages. We will need to progress early product candidates through preclinical studies and submit INDs to the FDA or appropriate regulatory documents to applicable foreign authorities prior to initiating their clinical development.

Our ability to generate product revenues, which we do not expect will occur for many years, if ever, will depend heavily on the successful development and eventual commercialization of our product candidates. The success of our product candidates will depend on several factors, including the following:

completion of preclinical studies with favorable results;
successful enrollment in, and completion of, clinical trials;
sufficiency of our financial and other resources to complete the necessary preclinical studies and clinical trials;

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allowance to proceed with clinical trials under INDs by the FDA or under similar regulatory submissions by applicable foreign authorities for the conduct of clinical trials of our product candidates and our proposed design of future clinical trials;
demonstrating the safety and efficacy of our product candidates to the satisfaction of applicable regulatory authorities;
receipt of regulatory approvals from applicable regulatory authorities, including NDAs from the FDA and maintaining such approvals;
making arrangements with third-party manufacturers, or establishing clinical and commercial manufacturing capabilities for our product candidates;
establishing sales, marketing and distribution capabilities and launching commercial sales of our products, if and when approved, whether alone or in collaboration with others;
establishing and maintaining patent and trade secret protection or regulatory exclusivity for our product candidates;
acceptance of any products we develop and their benefits and uses, if and when approved, by patients, the medical community and third-party payors;
effectively competing with other therapies;
obtaining and maintaining healthcare coverage and adequate reimbursement from third-party payors;
maintaining an acceptable safety profile of our products following approval; and
building and maintaining an organization of people who can successfully develop our product candidates.

We have not yet succeeded and may not succeed in demonstrating efficacy and safety for any product candidates in clinical trials or in obtaining marketing approval thereafter. Given our early stage of development, it will take several years before we can demonstrate the safety and efficacy of a product candidate sufficient to warrant approval for commercialization, if we can do so at all. If we are unable to develop, or obtain marketing approval for, or, if approved, successfully commercialize our product candidates, we may not be able to generate sufficient revenue to continue our business.

Clinical and preclinical drug development involves a lengthy and expensive process with uncertain timelines and outcomes. The results of prior clinical trials and preclinical studies are not necessarily predictive of future results, and may not be favorable, or receive regulatory approval on a timely basis, if at all.

Clinical drug development is expensive and can take many years to complete, and its outcome is inherently uncertain. Our clinical trials may not be conducted as planned or completed on schedule, if at all, and failure can occur at any time during the preclinical study or clinical trial process. For example, we depend on the availability of non-human primates (“NHP”) to conduct certain preclinical studies that we are required to complete prior to submitting an IND and initiating clinical development. There is currently a global shortage of NHPs available for drug development. This has caused the cost of obtaining NHPs for our preclinical studies to increase dramatically and, if the shortage continues, could also result in delays to our development timelines. Despite promising preclinical or clinical results, any product candidate can unexpectedly fail at any stage of preclinical or clinical development. The historical failure rate for product candidates in our industry is high. Furthermore, the results from clinical trials or preclinical studies of a product candidate may not predict the results of later clinical trials of the product candidate, and interim results of a clinical trial are not necessarily indicative of final results. For example, in December 2023, we reported topline data from our 12-week Phase 2a clinical trial, which focused on safety and tolerability of GSBR-1290 in a total of 94 participants to date, including 60 participants randomized to GSBR-1290. The results showed GSBR-1290 was generally well-tolerated with no treatment-related SAEs, no adverse event-related discontinuation in obesity and only one adverse event-related discontinuation in T2DM. Furthermore, GSBR-1290 demonstrated

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significant reductions in hemoglobin A1c and weight at 12 weeks in T2DM. We further reported interim Phase 2a obesity cohort data, in which GSBR-1290 demonstrated significant reduction in weight at 8 weeks. Due to the preliminary nature of these results and the length of the study and sample size, these results are not necessarily indicative of the final results for our clinical trials for GSBR-1290. Product candidates in later stages of clinical trials may fail to show the desired safety and efficacy characteristics despite having progressed through preclinical studies and initial clinical trials. In particular, while we have conducted, or are conducting certain preclinical studies of our product candidates, the predictive value of these studies with respect to future testing in humans is limited, particularly in indications where animal models are less developed.

Even if our clinical trials are completed, the results may not be sufficient to obtain marketing approval for our product candidates. In clinical trials that are based on preclinical studies and early clinical trials, it is not uncommon to observe unexpected results, and many product candidates fail in clinical development despite very promising early results. Moreover, preclinical and clinical data may be susceptible to varying interpretations and analyses. A number of companies in the biopharmaceutical industry have suffered significant setbacks in clinical development even after achieving promising results in earlier studies. In addition, in some cases, external experts or regulatory authorities disagreed with such companies’ views and interpretations of the data and results from earlier preclinical studies or clinical trials. As we investigate GSBR-1290 for T2DM and obesity and ANPA-0073 for IPF, we may encounter new and unforeseen difficulties. Similarly any future product candidates we may develop may not be able to progress from preclinical to Phase 1 clinical development. For the foregoing reasons, we cannot be certain that our ongoing and planned clinical trials and preclinical studies will be successful. Any of the foregoing occurrences may harm our business, financial condition and prospects significantly.

Any difficulties or delays in the commencement or completion, or termination or suspension, of our planned clinical trials could result in increased costs to us, delay or limit our ability to generate revenue and adversely affect our commercial prospects.

In order to obtain FDA approval to market our product candidates, we must demonstrate the safety and efficacy of our product candidates in humans to the satisfaction of the FDA. To meet these requirements, we will have to conduct adequate and well-controlled clinical trials. Clinical testing is expensive, time-consuming and subject to uncertainty. Conducting preclinical studies and clinical trials represents a lengthy, time-consuming and expensive process. The length of time may vary substantially according to the type, complexity and novelty of the program, and often can be several years or more per program. Delays associated with programs for which we are directly conducting preclinical studies may cause us to incur additional operating expenses.

Clinical trials may not be conducted as planned or completed on schedule, if at all. For example, in September 2023 we reported that a data collection omission had occurred at a clinical site that impacted the obesity cohort (120 mg dose level) of the Phase 2a study for GSBR-1290, where weight was not collected at the final (week 12) visit for 24 of the 40 enrolled participants. Other safety and laboratory assessments were measured at all visits, including the week 12 visit as per protocol. We have completed the enrollment of additional participants in the Phase 2a obesity cohort to replace those for whom 12-week weight data was not collected. The replacement participants will follow the same study protocol, without changes in the titration schema or target dose (120 mg at once-daily dosing). However, as a result of this data collection omission, we reported interim Phase 2a obesity cohort data in December 2023, and we expect to report the full 12-week obesity data in the latter half of the second quarter of 2024.

Events that may prevent successful or timely completion of clinical development include:

delays in reaching a consensus with applicable regulatory authorities on trial design or implementation;
delays in obtaining regulatory authorization to commence a clinical trial;

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delays in reaching agreement on acceptable terms with prospective clinical research organizations (“CROs”), other vendors, or clinical trial sites, the terms of which can be subject to extensive negotiation and may vary significantly among different vendors and trial sites;
delays in obtaining approval from one or more institutional review boards (“IRB”) refusing to approve, suspending or terminating the trial at an investigational site, precluding enrollment of additional participants, or withdrawing their approval of the trial;
delays in recruiting suitable patients to participate in our ongoing and planned clinical trials;
changes to the clinical trial protocol;
clinical sites deviating from trial protocol such as the data collection omission we experienced at a clinical site as discussed above or dropping out of a trial;
delays in manufacturing sufficient quantities of our product candidates for use in clinical trials, or delays in sufficiently developing, characterizing or controlling a manufacturing process suitable for clinical trials;
delays in having patients complete participation in a trial or return for post-treatment follow-up;
participants choosing an alternative treatment for the indication for which we are developing our product candidates, or participating in competing clinical trials;
lack of adequate funding to continue a clinical trial;
occurrence of AEs or SAEs associated with the product candidate that are viewed to outweigh its potential benefits;
occurrence of SAEs in clinical trials of the same class of agents conducted by other companies;
imposition of a temporary or permanent clinical hold by regulatory authorities;
selection of clinical trial end points that require prolonged periods of clinical observation or analysis of the resulting data;
clinical trials producing negative or inconclusive results;
a facility manufacturing our product candidates or any of their components being ordered by the FDA or applicable foreign authorities to temporarily or permanently shut down due to violations of current good manufacturing practice (“cGMP”) regulations or other applicable requirements, or contamination or cross-contaminations of product candidates in the manufacturing process;
third-party clinical investigators losing the licenses or permits necessary to perform our clinical trials, not performing our clinical trials on our anticipated schedule or consistent with the clinical trial protocol or other regulatory requirements or committing fraud; or
changes in regulatory requirements, guidance, or feedback from regulatory agencies that require amending or submitting new clinical protocols or otherwise modifying the design of our clinical trials.

We could also encounter delays if a clinical trial is suspended or terminated by us, by the IRBs of the institutions in which such trials are being conducted, by a Data Safety Monitoring Board for such trial or by the FDA or applicable foreign authorities. Such authorities may impose such a suspension or termination due to a number of factors, including failure to conduct the clinical trial in accordance with regulatory requirements or our clinical protocols, inspection of the clinical trial operations or trial site by the FDA or applicable foreign authorities resulting in the imposition of a clinical hold, unforeseen safety issues or adverse side effects, failure to demonstrate a benefit from using a drug, changes in governmental regulations or administrative actions or lack of adequate funding to continue the clinical trial. In addition, changes in regulatory requirements and policies may occur, and we may need to amend clinical trial protocols to comply with these changes. Amendments may require us to resubmit our clinical trial protocols to IRBs for reexamination and approval, which may impact the costs, timing or successful completion of a clinical trial.

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Further, conducting clinical trials in foreign countries, as we may do for our product candidates, presents additional risks that may delay completion of our clinical trials. These risks include the failure of enrolled patients in foreign countries to adhere to clinical protocols as a result of differences in healthcare services or cultural customs, managing additional administrative burdens associated with foreign regulatory requirements, as well as political, currency exchange and other economic risks relevant to such foreign countries. Investigators and patients may not be able to comply with clinical trial protocols if quarantines impede patient movement or interrupt healthcare services. Similarly, our ability to recruit and retain patients and principal investigators and site staff which in turn could adversely impact our clinical trial operations. Additionally, we may experience interruption of key clinical trial activities, such as clinical trial site monitoring, due to limitations on travel, quarantines or social distancing protocols imposed or recommended by federal or state governments, employers and others in connection with public health concerns. We have faced and may continue to face delays in meeting our anticipated timelines for our ongoing and planned clinical trials. We experienced delays in our patient enrollment and our supply chain as a direct result of COVID-19 on our suppliers’ ability to timely manufacture and ship certain supplies such as reagents and other lab consumables and due to the data collection omission at a clinical site as discussed above. These delays have previously impacted and could in the future adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.

Any inability to successfully complete preclinical and clinical development could result in additional costs to us or impair our ability to generate revenue from future product sales and regulatory and commercialization milestones. In addition, if we make manufacturing or formulation changes to our product candidates, we may need to conduct additional testing to bridge our modified product candidate to earlier versions. For example, to facilitate potential commercial-scale manufacturing, we expect to transition from capsule formulations of our product candidates used for early clinical trials to tablet formulations, including the addition of excipients, in later stage clinical trials. While these formulation transitions are common for small molecule drug candidates, we cannot guarantee that we will not encounter delays or unexpected results in bridging studies or implementing necessary changes to the manufacturing process. Clinical trial delays could also shorten any periods during which we may have the exclusive right to commercialize our product candidates, if approved, or allow our competitors to bring comparable products to market before we do, which could impair our ability to successfully commercialize our product candidates and may harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Enrollment and retention of patients in clinical trials is an expensive and time-consuming process and could be made more difficult or rendered impossible by multiple factors outside our control, which could adversely affect our business, operating results and prospects.

Patient enrollment is a significant factor impacting the duration of our clinical trials, along with treatment duration and completion of required follow-up periods. Clinical trials may be prolonged, or we may not be able to initiate or continue clinical trials for our product candidates if we are unable to locate and enroll a sufficient number of eligible patients to participate as required by the FDA or applicable foreign authorities. For certain of our product candidates, including ANPA-0073, the conditions which we may evaluate include rare diseases with limited patient pools from which to draw. In some cases, patient populations for rare diseases are located at specific academic sites focused on such indications, often with multiple competing clinical trials. Potential patients for any planned clinical trials may not be adequately diagnosed or identified with the diseases which we are targeting or may not meet the entry criteria for such trials. We also may encounter difficulties in identifying and enrolling patients with a stage of disease appropriate for our planned clinical trials and monitoring such patients adequately during and after treatment. As noted above, other pharmaceutical companies targeting these same diseases are recruiting clinical trial patients from these patient populations, which may make it more difficult to fully enroll our clinical trials. In addition, the process of finding and diagnosing patients may prove costly.

The eligibility criteria of our clinical trials, once established, may further limit the pool of available trial participants. If the actual number of patients with these diseases is smaller than we anticipate, we may encounter difficulties in enrolling patients in our clinical trials, thereby delaying or preventing development and

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approval of our product candidates. Even once enrolled we may be unable to retain a sufficient number of patients to complete any of our trials.

The timely completion of clinical trials in accordance with their protocols depends, among other things, on our ability to enroll a sufficient number of patients who remain in the study until its conclusion. We may experience difficulties in patient enrollment or retention in our clinical trials for a variety of reasons. Patient enrollment and retention in clinical trials depends on many factors, including:

the size and nature of the patient population;
the severity of the disease under investigation;
the design of the trial protocol;
the existing body of safety and efficacy data for the product candidate;
the number and nature of competing treatments and ongoing clinical trials of competing therapies for the same indication;
the proximity of patients to clinical sites;
the eligibility criteria for the trial;
the ability to recruit clinical trial investigators with the appropriate competencies and experience;
the ability to adequately monitor patients during a trial, clinicians’ and patients’ perceptions as to the potential advantages of the product candidate being studied;
the risk that patients will drop out of a trial before completing all site visits; and
clinicians’ and patients’ perceptions as to the potential advantages of the drug being studied in relation to other available therapies.

Furthermore, our efforts to build relationships with patient communities may not succeed, which could result in delays in patient enrollment in our clinical trials. If we encounter any delays in enrolling such additional participants, this may further delay our clinical trial. In addition, any negative results we may report in clinical trials of our product candidate may make it difficult or impossible to recruit and retain patients in other clinical trials of that same product candidate. Delays or failures in planned patient enrollment or retention may result in increased costs, program delays or both, which could have a harmful effect on our ability to develop our product candidates, or could render further development impossible. For example, the impact of public health epidemics may delay or prevent patients from enrolling or from receiving treatment in accordance with the protocol and the required timelines, which could delay our clinical trials, or prevent us or our partners from completing our clinical trials at all, and harm our ability to obtain approval for such product candidate. Further, if patients drop out of our clinical trials, miss scheduled doses or follow-up visits, or otherwise fail to follow clinical trial protocols, the integrity of data from our clinical trials may be compromised or not accepted by the FDA or applicable foreign authorities, which would represent a significant setback for the applicable program. In addition, we may rely on CROs and clinical trial sites to ensure proper and timely conduct of our future clinical trials and, while we intend to enter into agreements governing their services, we will be limited in our ability to compel their actual performance. Such delays or failures could adversely affect our business, operating results and prospects.

Serious adverse events, undesirable side effects or other unexpected properties of our product candidates may be identified during development or after approval, which could lead to the discontinuation of our clinical development programs, refusal by regulatory authorities to approve our product candidates or, if discovered following marketing approval, revocation of marketing

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authorizations or limitations on the use of our product candidates, any of which would limit the commercial potential of such product candidate.

During the conduct of clinical trials, patients report changes in their health, including illnesses, injuries and discomforts, to their doctor. Often, it is not possible to determine whether or not the product candidate being studied caused these conditions. Regulatory authorities may draw different conclusions or require additional testing to confirm these determinations, if they occur. In addition, it is possible that as we test our product candidates in larger, longer and more extensive clinical trials with a broader group of patients, or as use of these product candidates becomes more widespread if they receive marketing approval, illnesses, injuries, discomforts and other AEs that were observed in earlier trials, as well as conditions that did not occur or went undetected in previous trials, will be reported by participants. Many times, side effects are only detectable after investigational product candidates are tested in large-scale, Phase III trials or, in some cases, after they are made available to patients on a commercial scale after approval. If additional clinical experience indicates that any of our current product candidates and any future product candidates has serious or life-threatening side effects or other side effects that outweigh the potential therapeutic benefit, the development of the product candidate may fail or be delayed, or, if the product candidate has received marketing approval, such approval may be revoked, which would harm our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition. In particular, because we are developing our product candidates for chronic indications, the FDA and applicable foreign authorities will likely require that our product candidates demonstrate a higher level of safety over a longer period of time than would be the case for product candidates intended for short-term use. Moreover, if we elect, or are required, to delay, suspend or terminate any clinical trial of our product candidates, the commercial prospects of our product candidates may be harmed and our ability to generate revenue through their sale may be delayed or eliminated. Any of these occurrences may harm our business, financial condition and prospects significantly.

Moreover, if our product candidates are associated with undesirable side effects in clinical trials or have characteristics that are unexpected, we may elect to abandon their development or limit their development to more narrow uses or subpopulations in which the undesirable side effects or other characteristics are less prevalent, less severe or more acceptable from a risk-benefit perspective, which may limit the commercial value for the product candidate if approved. We may also be required to modify our trial plans based on findings in our ongoing clinical trials. In our completed Phase 1 SAD and Phase 1b MAD study of GSBR-1290, the following adverse events occurred and were considered probably or possibly related to the study drug: nausea, headache, vomiting, dehydration, decreased appetite, dizziness, and diarrhea. In our completed Phase 2a study of GSBR-1290, the following adverse events occurred and were considered probably or possibly related to the study drug: nausea, headache, vomiting, decreased appetite, dyspepsia, and diarrhea. In our completed Phase 1 SAD and MAD study of ANPA-0073, the following adverse events occurred and were considered probably or possibly related to the study drug: blood creatine phosphokinase increase, dizziness, electrocardiogram T wave inversion, diarrhea, headache, lethargy, nausea, vomiting, chills, palpitations, and sinus tachycardia. However, further analysis may reveal AEs inconsistent with the safety results observed. Many compounds that initially showed promise in early-stage testing have later been found to cause side effects that prevented further development of the compound. In addition, regulatory authorities may draw different conclusions or require additional testing to confirm these determinations.

In addition, if any of our product candidates receive marketing approval, the FDA could require us to include a black box warning in our label or adopt a REMS, to ensure that the benefits outweigh its risks, which may include, among other things, a medication guide outlining the risks of the drug for distribution to patients and a communication plan to health care practitioners. For example, the FDA has required that the product labels of approved drugs targeting GLP-1R include a black box warning related to the risk of thyroid C-cell tumors based on rodent carcinogenicity studies. While we have not yet conducted carcinogenicity studies for GSBR-1290, because it also targets GLP-1R, it is possible that absent compelling data to the contrary, the FDA and applicable foreign authorities will similarly require a black box warning for GSBR-1290 if it is approved for marketing. Furthermore, if we or others later identify undesirable side effects caused by our product candidates, several other potentially significant negative consequences could result, including:

regulatory authorities may suspend or withdraw approvals of such product candidate;

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regulatory authorities may require additional warnings on the label, including “boxed” warnings, or issue safety alerts, Dear Healthcare Provider letters, press releases or other communications containing warnings or other safety information about the product;
we may be required to change the way a product candidate is administered or conduct additional clinical trials;
we could be sued and held liable for harm caused to patients;
we could be subject to fines, injunctions, or the imposition of criminal or civil penalties;
we may need to conduct a recall;
we may be forced to suspend marketing of that product, or decide to remove the product from the marketplace; and
the product may become less competitive, and our reputation may suffer.

Any of these events could prevent us from achieving or maintaining market acceptance of our product candidates and could significantly harm our business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

As an organization, we have never conducted later-stage clinical trials or submitted an NDA, and may be unable to do so for any of our product candidates.

We are early in our development efforts for our product candidates, and we will need to successfully complete pivotal clinical trials in order to seek FDA or applicable foreign authority approval to market GSBR-1290, ANPA-0073 and any future product candidates we may develop. Carrying out clinical trials and the submission of NDAs is complicated. We completed a Phase 1 SAD study for GSBR-1290 in healthy volunteers in September 2022. We reported topline data for the Phase 1b MAD study in September 2023. We also reported topline data for the 12-week Phase 2a clinical trial in December 2023. We further reported interim Phase 2a obesity cohort data, in which GSBR-1290 demonstrated significant reductions in weight at 8 weeks. We expect to report the full 12-week obesity data in the latter half of the second quarter of 2024. We also reported results from a Japanese ethno-bridging study and findings from 6- and 9-month toxicology studies demonstrating encouraging safety to support advancing into Phase 2b development. The additional formulation bridging study to evaluate a tablet formulation of GSBR-1290 is expected to be completed in the latter half of the second quarter of 2024. Additionally, we completed our Phase 1 SAD and MAD study for ANPA-0073 in healthy volunteers for IPF in September 2022. We have not conducted any later stage or pivotal clinical trials, have limited experience as a company in preparing, submitting and prosecuting regulatory filings and have not previously submitted an NDA or other applicable foreign regulatory submission for any product candidate. We also plan to conduct a number of clinical trials for multiple product candidates in parallel over the next several years. This may be a difficult process to manage with our limited resources and may divert the attention of management. In addition, we have had no interactions with the FDA or applicable foreign authorities and cannot be certain how many clinical trials of our product candidates will be required or how such trials will have to be designed. Consequently, we may be unable to successfully and efficiently execute and complete necessary clinical trials in a way that leads to regulatory submission and approval of any of our product candidates. We may require more time and incur greater costs than our competitors and may not succeed in obtaining marketing approvals of product candidates that we develop. Failure to commence or complete, or delays in, our planned clinical trials, could prevent us from or delay us in submitting NDAs for and commercializing our product candidates.

The marketing approval processes of the FDA and applicable foreign authorities are lengthy, time consuming, expensive and inherently unpredictable, and if we are ultimately unable to obtain marketing approval for our product candidates, our business will be substantially harmed.

The time required to reach approval by the FDA and applicable foreign authorities is unpredictable but typically takes many years following the commencement of clinical trials and depends upon numerous factors, including the substantial discretion of the regulatory authorities. In addition, approval policies, regulations, or the type and amount of clinical data necessary to gain approval may change during the course of a product

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candidate’s clinical development and may vary among jurisdictions. We have not obtained marketing approval for any product candidate and it is possible that any product candidates we may seek to develop in the future will never obtain marketing approval. Neither we nor any future collaborator is permitted to market any of our product candidates in the United States until we receive FDA marketing approval of an NDA.

Prior to obtaining approval to commercialize a product candidate in the United States or abroad, we or our collaborators must demonstrate with substantial evidence from well-controlled clinical trials, and to the satisfaction of the FDA or applicable foreign authorities, that such product candidates are safe and effective for their intended uses. The number of nonclinical studies and clinical trials that will be required for FDA approval varies depending on the product candidate, the disease or condition that the product candidate is designed to address, and the regulations applicable to any particular product candidate. Results from nonclinical studies and clinical trials can be interpreted in different ways. Even if we believe the nonclinical or clinical data for our product candidates are promising, such data may not be sufficient to support approval by the FDA and other regulatory authorities. The FDA and applicable foreign authorities may also require us to conduct additional preclinical studies or clinical trials for our product candidates either prior to or post-approval, or could object to elements of our clinical development program.

The FDA or applicable foreign authorities can delay, limit or deny approval of our product candidates or require us to conduct additional nonclinical or clinical testing or abandon a program for various reasons, including the following:

the FDA or applicable foreign authorities may disagree with the design or implementation of our clinical trials;
we may be unable to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the FDA or applicable foreign authorities that a product candidate is safe and effective for its proposed indication;
the results of clinical trials may not meet the level of statistical significance required by the FDA or applicable foreign authorities for approval;
serious and unexpected drug-related side effects experienced by participants in our clinical trials or by individuals using drugs similar to our product candidates;
we may be unable to demonstrate that a product candidate’s clinical and other benefits outweigh its safety risks;
the FDA or applicable foreign authorities may disagree with our interpretation of data from preclinical studies or clinical trials;
the data collected from clinical trials of our product candidates may not be acceptable or sufficient to support the submission of an NDA or other submission or to obtain marketing approval in the United States or elsewhere, and we may be required to conduct additional clinical trials;
the FDA’s or the applicable foreign authority’s requirement for additional nonclinical studies or clinical trials;
the FDA or the applicable foreign authority may disagree regarding the formulation, labeling and/or the specifications of our product candidates;
the FDA or applicable foreign authorities may fail to approve the manufacturing processes or facilities of third-party manufacturers with which we contract for clinical and commercial supplies; and
the approval policies or regulations of the FDA or applicable foreign authorities may significantly change in a manner rendering our clinical data insufficient for approval.

Of the large number of products in development, only a small percentage successfully complete the FDA or foreign marketing approval processes and are commercialized. The lengthy approval process as well as the unpredictability of future clinical trial results may result in our failing to obtain marketing approval to market our product candidates, which would significantly harm our business, results of operations and prospects.

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We may expend our limited resources to pursue a particular product candidate and fail to capitalize on product candidates or indications that may be more profitable or for which there is a greater likelihood of success.

Because we have limited financial and managerial resources, we focus on specific product candidates, indications and discovery programs. Correctly prioritizing our research and development activities is particularly important for us due to the breadth of potential product candidates and indications that we believe could be pursued using our platform technologies. As a result, we may forgo or delay pursuit of opportunities with other product candidates that could have had greater commercial potential. Our resource allocation decisions may cause us to fail to capitalize on viable commercial products or profitable market opportunities. Our spending on current and future research and development programs and product candidates for specific indications may not yield any commercially viable products. If we do not accurately evaluate the commercial potential or target market for a particular product candidate, we may relinquish valuable rights to that product candidate through future collaborations, licenses and other similar arrangements in cases in which it would have been more advantageous for us to retain sole development and commercialization rights to such product candidate. In addition, in recent years, a number of companies have entered the drug discovery industry utilizing different AI approaches. The success of other such AI approaches to drug discovery could create more competition for us. We believe that we must continue to invest a significant amount of time and resources in our platform technologies to maintain and improve our competitive position.

We may not be able to obtain or maintain orphan drug designations or exclusivity for our product candidates, which could limit the potential profitability of our product candidates.

Regulatory authorities in some jurisdictions, including the United States, may designate drugs for relatively small patient populations as orphan drugs. Under the Orphan Drug Act of 1983, the FDA may designate a drug as an orphan drug if it is a drug intended to treat a rare disease or condition, which is generally defined as a patient population of fewer than 200,000 individuals in the United States, or a patient population of greater than 200,000 individuals in the United States but for which there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing the drug will be recovered from sales in the United States alone. In the United States, orphan drug designation entitles a party to financial incentives such as opportunities for grant funding towards clinical trial costs, tax advantages and application fee waivers. After the FDA grants orphan drug designation, the generic identity of the drug and its potential orphan use are disclosed publicly by the FDA. Orphan drug designation, however, neither shortens the development time or regulatory review time of a drug nor gives the drug any advantage in the regulatory review or approval process. Generally, if a drug with an orphan drug designation subsequently receives the first marketing approval for the targeted indication, then the drug is entitled to a seven-year period of marketing exclusivity that precludes the applicable regulatory authority from approving another marketing application for the same chemical entity for the same indication for the exclusivity period except in limited situations, such as a showing of clinical superiority to the product with orphan drug exclusivity or where the manufacturer is unable to assure sufficient product quantity. For purposes of small molecule drugs, the FDA defines “same drug” as a drug that contains the same active moiety and is intended for the same use as the drug in question. A designated orphan drug may not receive orphan drug exclusivity if it is approved for a use that is broader than the indication for which it received orphan drug designation.

We intend to pursue orphan drug designation for one or more of our product candidates, as well as for potential other future product candidates. Obtaining orphan drug designations is important to our business strategy; however, obtaining an orphan drug designation can be difficult and we may not be successful in doing so. Even if we were to obtain orphan drug designation for a product candidate, we may not obtain orphan exclusivity and that exclusivity may not effectively protect the drug from the competition of different drugs for the same condition, which could be approved during the exclusivity period. Additionally, after an orphan drug is approved, the FDA could subsequently approve another application for the same drug for the same indication if the FDA concludes that the later drug is shown to be safer, more effective or makes a major contribution to patient care. Orphan drug exclusive marketing rights in the United States also may be lost if the FDA later determines that the request for designation was materially defective or if the manufacturer is unable to assure sufficient quantity of the drug to meet the needs of patients with the rare disease or

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condition. The failure to obtain an orphan drug designation for any product candidates we may develop, the inability to maintain that designation for the duration of the applicable period, or the inability to obtain or maintain orphan drug exclusivity could reduce our ability to make sufficient sales of the applicable product candidate to balance our expenses incurred to develop it, which would have a negative impact on our operational results and financial condition.

We have conducted, or plan to conduct, our initial clinical studies for GSBR-1290, ANPA-0073, LTSE-2578 and our other product candidates outside of the United States. However, the FDA and other foreign equivalents may not accept data from such trials, in which case our development plans will be delayed, which could materially harm our business.

We have conducted our initial clinical studies for GSBR-1290 and ANPA-0073 in Australia, and will likely conduct our Phase 1 studies for other drug candidates in Australia. The acceptance of study data from clinical trials conducted outside the United States or another jurisdiction by the FDA or applicable foreign authority may be subject to certain conditions or may not be accepted at all. In cases where data from foreign clinical trials are intended to serve as the sole basis for marketing approval in the United States, the FDA will generally not approve the application on the basis of foreign data alone unless (i) the data are applicable to the U.S. population and U.S. medical practice; (ii) the trials were performed by clinical investigators of recognized competence and pursuant to good clinical practices (“GCP”) regulations; and (iii) the data may be considered valid without the need for an on-site inspection by the FDA, or if the FDA considers such inspection to be necessary, the FDA is able to validate the data through an on-site inspection or other appropriate means. In addition, even where the foreign study data are not intended to serve as the sole basis for approval, the FDA will not accept the data as support for an application for marketing approval unless the study is well-designed and well-conducted in accordance with GCP requirements and the FDA is able to validate the data from the study through an onsite inspection if deemed necessary. Many foreign regulatory authorities have similar approval requirements. In addition, such foreign trials would be subject to the applicable local laws of the foreign jurisdictions where the trials are conducted. There can be no assurance that the FDA or any applicable foreign authority will accept data from trials conducted outside of the United States or the applicable jurisdiction. If the FDA or any applicable foreign authority does not accept such data, it would result in the need for additional trials, which could be costly and time-consuming, and which may result in current or future product candidates that we may develop not receiving approval for commercialization in the applicable jurisdiction.

We believe that clinical data generated in Australia will be accepted by the FDA and its foreign equivalents outside of Australia; however, there can be no assurance the FDA or applicable foreign authorities will accept data from any other clinical studies that we may conduct in Australia. If the FDA or applicable foreign authorities do not accept any such data, we would likely be required to conduct additional Phase 1 clinical studies, which would be costly and time consuming, and delay aspects of our development plan, which could harm our business.

Conducting clinical trials outside the United States exposes us to additional risks, including risks associated with:

additional foreign regulatory requirements;
foreign exchange fluctuations;
compliance with foreign manufacturing, customs, shipment and storage requirements;
cultural differences in medical practice and clinical research; and
diminished protection of intellectual property in some countries.

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Preliminary, topline and interim data from our clinical trials that we announce or publish from time to time may change as more patient data become available and are subject to audit and verification procedures that could result in material changes in the final data.

From time to time, we may publicly disclose interim, preliminary or topline data from our clinical trials, which are based on a preliminary analysis of then-available data, and the results and related findings and conclusions are subject to change following a more comprehensive review of the data related to the particular study or trial. We also make assumptions, estimations, calculations and conclusions as part of our analyses of data, and we may not have received or had the opportunity to fully and carefully evaluate all data. As a result, the topline or preliminary results that we report may differ from future results of the same studies, or different conclusions or considerations may qualify such results, once additional data have been received and fully evaluated. Topline and preliminary data also remain subject to audit and verification procedures that may result in the final data being materially different from the topline or preliminary data we previously made public. As a result, topline and preliminary data should be viewed with caution until the final data are available. From time to time, we may also disclose interim data from our clinical trials. Interim data from clinical trials that we may complete are subject to the risk that one or more of the clinical outcomes may materially change as patient enrollment continues and more patient data become available. Adverse differences between topline, preliminary or interim data and final data could significantly harm our business prospects. For example, in December 2023, we reported clinically meaningful topline data from our 12-week Phase 2a clinical trial, which focused on safety and tolerability of GSBR-1290 in a total of 94 participants to date, including 60 participants randomized to GSBR-1290. The results showed GSBR-1290 was generally well-tolerated with no treatment-related SAEs, no adverse event-related discontinuation in obesity and only one adverse event-related discontinuation in T2DM. Furthermore, GSBR-1290 demonstrated significant reductions in HbA1c and weight at 12 weeks in T2DM. We further reported interim Phase 2a obesity cohort data, in which GSBR-1290 demonstrated significant reductions in weight at 8 weeks. Due to the preliminary nature of these results and the length of the study and sample size, these results are not necessarily indicative of the final results for our clinical trials for GSBR-1290. If the final data is materially different from the preliminary topline data reported, this could significantly harm our business prospects.

Further, others, including regulatory agencies, may not accept or agree with our assumptions, estimates, calculations, conclusions or analyses or may interpret or weigh the importance of data differently, which could impact the value of the particular program, the approvability or commercialization of the particular product candidate or product and our company in general. In addition, the information we choose to publicly disclose regarding a particular study or clinical trial is based on what is typically extensive information, and you or others may not agree with what we determine is the material or otherwise appropriate information to include in our disclosure, and any information we determine not to disclose may ultimately be deemed significant with respect to future decisions, conclusions, views, activities or otherwise regarding a particular product, product candidate or our business. If the topline or preliminary data that we report differ from actual results, or if others, including regulatory authorities, disagree with the conclusions reached, our ability to obtain approval for, and commercialize, our product candidates may be harmed, which could harm our business, operating results, prospects or financial condition.

Obtaining and maintaining marketing approval of our product candidates in one jurisdiction does not mean that we will be successful in obtaining marketing approval of our product candidates in other jurisdictions.

Obtaining and maintaining marketing approval of our product candidates in one jurisdiction does not guarantee that we will be able to obtain or maintain marketing approval in any other jurisdiction. For example, even if the FDA grants marketing approval of a product candidate, it does not mean that comparable regulatory authorities in foreign jurisdictions must also approve the manufacturing, marketing and promotion and reimbursement of the product candidate in those countries. However, a failure or delay in obtaining marketing approval in one jurisdiction may negatively impact the marketing approval process in others. Approval procedures vary among jurisdictions and can involve requirements and administrative review periods different from those in the United States, including additional preclinical studies or clinical trials as clinical trials conducted in one jurisdiction may not be accepted by regulatory authorities in other jurisdictions.

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In many jurisdictions outside the United States, a product candidate must be approved for reimbursement before it can be approved for sale in that jurisdiction. In some cases, the price that we intend to charge for our products is also subject to approval.

Obtaining foreign marketing approvals and establishing and maintaining compliance with foreign regulatory requirements could result in significant delays, difficulties and costs for us and could delay or prevent the introduction of our products in certain countries. If we or any future collaborator fail to comply with the regulatory requirements in international markets or fail to receive applicable marketing approvals, our target market will be reduced and our ability to realize the full market potential of our product candidates will be harmed, which would adversely affect our business, prospects, financial condition, and results of operations.

Disruptions at the FDA and other government agencies caused by funding shortages or global health concerns could hinder their ability to hire, retain or deploy key leadership and other personnel, or otherwise prevent new or modified products from being developed, approved or commercialized in a timely manner or at all, which could negatively impact our business.

The ability of the FDA and applicable foreign authorities to review and approve new products can be affected by a variety of factors, including government budget and funding levels, ability to hire and retain key personnel and accept the payment of user fees, and statutory, regulatory, and policy changes. Average review times at the FDA have fluctuated in recent years as a result. In addition, government funding of other government agencies that fund research and development activities is subject to the political process, which is inherently fluid and unpredictable.

Disruptions at the FDA and other agencies may also slow the time necessary for new drugs to be reviewed and/or approved by necessary government agencies, which would adversely affect our business. For example, over the last several years, the U.S. government shut down several times and certain regulatory agencies, such as the FDA, furloughed critical employees and ceased critical activities. If a prolonged government shutdown occurs, it could significantly impact the ability of the FDA and applicable foreign authorities to timely review and process our regulatory submissions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

If a prolonged government shutdown occurs, or if global health concerns prevent the FDA or applicable foreign authorities from conducting their regular inspections, reviews, or other regulatory activities, it could significantly impact the ability of the FDA or applicable foreign authorities to timely review and process our regulatory submissions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Risks Related to Our Reliance on Third Parties

We rely on third parties for the manufacture of our product candidates for preclinical and clinical development and expect to continue to do so for the foreseeable future. This reliance on third parties increases the risk that we will not have sufficient quantities of our product candidates or products or such quantities at an acceptable cost, which could delay, prevent or impair our development or commercialization efforts.

We do not own or operate manufacturing facilities and have no plans to build our own clinical or commercial scale manufacturing capabilities. We rely, and expect to continue to rely, on third parties for the manufacture of our product candidates and related raw materials for preclinical and clinical development, as well as for commercial manufacture if any of our product candidates receive marketing approval. This reliance increases the risk that we will not have sufficient quantities of our product candidates or products, if approved, or such quantities at an acceptable cost or quality, which could delay, prevent or impair our development or commercialization efforts. Our active pharmaceutical ingredients and drug product for our product candidates are currently provided by a single-source supplier, WuXi STA, and we expect to rely on this supplier for the foreseeable future. However, certain Chinese biotechnology companies and CMOs may become subject to trade restrictions, sanctions, and other regulatory requirements by the U.S. government, which could restrict or even prohibit our ability to work with such entities, thereby potentially disrupting the supply of material to

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us. We have contracted with, or are in the process of pursuing contracts with, alternative suppliers or manufacturers outside of China for our active pharmaceutical ingredients and drug product for our product candidates. While we believe that our current manufacturing plan will provide us with alternative sources for such supplies, there is a risk that, if supplies are interrupted, or the quality of ingredients provided by such alternative sources is not to our specification, it would cause delays in our supply chain and increase the cost of manufacturing our drugs, which could materially harm our business.

Furthermore, we do not have complete control over all aspects of the manufacturing process of, and are dependent on, our contract manufacturing partners for compliance with cGMP regulations for manufacturing both active drug substances and finished drug products. Third-party manufacturers may not be able to comply with cGMP regulations or similar regulatory requirements outside of the United States. If our contract manufacturers cannot successfully manufacture material that conforms to our specifications and the strict regulatory requirements of the FDA and others, they will not be able to secure and/or maintain marketing approval for their manufacturing facilities. In addition, we do not have control over the ability of our contract manufacturers to maintain adequate quality control, quality assurance and qualified personnel. If the FDA or an applicable foreign authority does not approve these facilities for the manufacture of our product candidates or if the FDA or applicable foreign authority, withdraws any such approval in the future, we may need to find alternative manufacturing facilities, which would significantly impact our ability to develop, obtain marketing approval for or market our product candidates, if approved. Our failure, or the failure of our third-party manufacturers, to comply with applicable regulations could result in sanctions being imposed on us, including fines, injunctions, civil penalties, delays, suspension or withdrawal of approvals, license revocation, seizures or recalls of product candidates or drugs, operating restrictions and criminal prosecutions, any of which could significantly and adversely affect supplies of our product candidates or drugs and harm our business and results of operations.

Our current and anticipated future dependence upon others for the manufacture of our product candidates or drugs may adversely affect our future profit margins and our ability to commercialize any product candidates that receive marketing approval on a timely and competitive basis.

In the event that any of our manufacturers fails to comply with applicable requirements or to perform its obligations to us in relation to quality, timing or otherwise, or if our supply of components or other materials becomes limited or interrupted for other reasons, including due to the impact of future global pandemics, we may be forced to manufacture the materials ourselves, for which we currently do not have the capabilities or resources, or enter into an agreement with another third party, which we may not be able to do on commercially reasonable terms, if at all. In particular, any replacement of our manufacturers could require significant effort and expertise because there may be a limited number of qualified replacements. In some cases, the technical skills or technology required to manufacture our product candidates may be unique or proprietary to the original manufacturer and we may have difficulty transferring such skills or technology to another third party and a feasible alternative may not exist. In addition, certain of our product candidates and our own proprietary methods have never been produced or implemented outside of our company, and we may therefore experience delays to our development programs if and when we attempt to establish new third-party manufacturing arrangements for these product candidates or methods. These factors would increase our reliance on our third-party manufacturers or require us to obtain a license from such manufacturers in order to have another third-party manufacture our product candidates. If we are required to or voluntarily change manufacturers for any reason, we will be required to verify that the new manufacturer maintains facilities and procedures that comply with quality standards and with all applicable regulations and guidelines. We will also need to verify, such as through a manufacturing comparability study, that any product produced by the new manufacturer is equivalent to that produced in a prior facility. The delays associated with the verification of a new manufacturer and equivalent product could negatively affect our ability to develop product candidates in a timely manner or within budget.

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Our or a third party’s failure to execute on our manufacturing requirements on commercially reasonable terms and timelines, if at all, and comply with cGMP requirements could adversely affect our business in a number of ways, including:

inability to meet our drug specifications and quality requirements consistently;
delay or inability to procure or expand sufficient manufacturing capacity;
issues related to scale-up of manufacturing;
costs and validation of new equipment and facilities required for scale-up;
failure to comply with cGMP or similar foreign standards;
inability to negotiate manufacturing agreements with third parties under commercially reasonable terms, if at all;
reliance on single source manufacturers for drug substances and drug products;
lack of qualified backup suppliers for those components that are currently purchased from a sole or single source supplier;
misappropriation of proprietary information, including our trade secrets and know-how;
the mislabeling of clinical supplies, potentially resulting in the wrong dose amounts being supplied or study drug or placebo not being properly identified;
clinical supplies not being delivered to clinical sites on time, leading to clinical trial interruptions;
operations of our third-party manufacturers or suppliers could be disrupted by conditions unrelated to our business or operations, including the bankruptcy of the manufacturer or supplier; and
carrier disruptions or increased costs that are beyond our control.

In addition, we do not have any long-term commitments or supply agreements with our third-party manufacturers. We may be unable to establish any supply agreements with our third-party manufacturers or do so on acceptable terms, which increases the risk of timely obtaining sufficient quantities of our product candidates or such quantities at an acceptable cost, which may harm our business and results of operations.

We rely on third parties to conduct, supervise and monitor our discovery research, preclinical studies and clinical trials. We have experienced delays due to actions of third parties in the past and if in the future third parties do not satisfactorily carry out their contractual duties or fail to meet expected deadlines, our development programs may be delayed or subject to increased costs, each of which may have an adverse effect on our business and prospects.

We do not currently have the ability to independently conduct certain discovery research, preclinical studies and clinical trials for our product candidates. We rely on CROs and clinical trial sites to ensure the proper and timely conduct of our preclinical studies and clinical trials, and we expect to have limited influence over their actual performance. We rely upon CROs to monitor and manage data for our clinical programs, as well as the execution of future nonclinical studies. We expect to control only certain aspects of our CROs’ activities. Nevertheless, we will be responsible for ensuring that each of our preclinical studies or clinical trials are conducted in accordance with the applicable protocol, legal, regulatory and scientific standards and our reliance on the CROs does not relieve us of our regulatory responsibilities.

We and our CROs will be required to comply with the good laboratory practices (“GLPs”), and GCPs, which are regulations and guidelines enforced by the FDA and applicable foreign authorities in the form of International Conference on Harmonization guidelines for any of our product candidates that are in preclinical and clinical development. The regulatory authorities enforce GCPs through periodic inspections of trial sponsors, principal investigators and clinical trial sites. Although we will rely on CROs to conduct GLP-compliant preclinical studies and GCP-compliant clinical trials, we remain responsible for ensuring that each

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of our GLP preclinical studies and clinical trials is conducted in accordance with its investigational plan and protocol and applicable laws and regulations, and our reliance on the CROs does not relieve us of our regulatory responsibilities. If we or our CROs fail to comply with GCPs, the clinical data generated in our clinical trials may be deemed unreliable and the FDA or applicable foreign authorities may require us to perform additional clinical trials before approving our marketing applications. For example, in September 2023 we announced that topline data from the obesity cohort of our Phase 2a trial of GSBR-1290 would be delayed because of a data collection omission by a clinical site, where weight was not collected at the final (week 12) visit for 24 of the 40 enrolled participants. We expect to report the full 12-week obesity data in the latter half of the second quarter of 2024. Accordingly, if our CROs fail to comply with these regulations or fail to recruit a sufficient number of participants or ensure the collection of requisite data by clinical sites, we may be required to enroll additional participants or repeat clinical trials, which would delay the marketing approval process.

While we will have agreements governing their activities, our CROs will not be our employees, and we will not control whether or not they devote sufficient time and resources to our future clinical and nonclinical programs. These CROs may also have relationships with other commercial entities, including our competitors, for whom they may also be conducting clinical trials, or other drug development activities which could harm our business. We face the risk of potential unauthorized disclosure or misappropriation of our intellectual property by CROs, which may reduce our trade secret protection and allow our potential competitors to access and exploit our proprietary technology. If our CROs do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or obligations, fail to meet expected deadlines, or if the quality or accuracy of the clinical data they obtain is compromised due to the failure to adhere to our clinical protocols or regulatory requirements or for any other reasons, our clinical trials may be extended, delayed or terminated, and we may not be able to obtain marketing approval for, or successfully commercialize any product candidate that we develop. As a result, our financial results and the commercial prospects for any product candidate that we develop would be harmed, our costs could increase, and our ability to generate revenue could be delayed.

In addition, quarantines, shelter-in-place, and similar government orders, or the perception that such orders, shutdowns or other restrictions on the conduct of business operations could occur, which could disrupt our clinical timelines, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, prospects, financial condition, and results of operations. If our relationship with these CROs terminates, we may not be able to enter into arrangements with alternative CROs or do so on commercially reasonable terms. Switching or adding additional CROs involves substantial cost and requires management time and focus. In addition, there is a natural transition period when a new CRO commences work. As a result, delays occur, which can negatively impact our ability to meet our desired clinical development timelines. Though we intend to carefully manage our relationships with our CROs, we may encounter challenges or delays in the future and we cannot assure you that these delays or challenges will not have a negative impact on our business, financial condition and prospects.

In addition, principal investigators for our clinical trials may serve as scientific advisors or consultants to us from time to time and receive compensation in connection with such services. Under certain circumstances, we may be required to report some of these relationships to the FDA or applicable foreign authorities. The FDA or applicable foreign authorities may conclude that a financial relationship between us and a principal investigator has created a conflict of interest or otherwise affected interpretation of the trial. The FDA or applicable foreign authorities may therefore question the integrity of the data generated at the applicable clinical trial site and the utility of the clinical trial itself may be jeopardized. This could result in a delay in approval, or rejection, of our marketing applications by the FDA or applicable foreign authorities and may ultimately lead to the denial of marketing approval of our current and future product candidates.

We have entered into, and may in the future enter into, collaboration agreements and strategic alliances to maximize the potential of our structure-based drug discovery platform and product candidates, and we may not realize the anticipated benefits of such collaborations or alliances. We expect to continue to form collaborations in the future with respect to our product candidates, but may be unable to do so or to realize the potential benefits of such transactions, which may cause us to alter or delay our development and commercialization plans.

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Part of our business strategy is to explore additional collaborations with third parties to further strengthen our platform capabilities and to leverage our platform for external opportunities where partners bring additional disease biology understanding, development and commercial expertise, regional insights or other complementary capabilities. We may therefore form or seek further strategic alliances, create joint ventures or collaborations, or enter into additional licensing arrangements with third parties that we believe will complement or augment our development and commercialization efforts with respect to our structure-based drug discovery platform or our product candidates and any future product candidates that we may develop, including in territories outside the United States or for certain indications. These transactions can entail numerous operational and financial risks, including exposure to unknown liabilities, disruption of our business and diversion of our management’s time and attention in order to manage a collaboration or develop acquired products, product candidates or technologies, incurrence of substantial debt or dilutive issuances of equity securities to pay transaction consideration or costs, higher than expected collaboration, acquisition or integration costs, write-downs of assets or goodwill or impairment charges, increased amortization expenses, difficulty and cost in facilitating the collaboration or combining the operations and personnel of any acquired business, impairment of relationships with key suppliers, manufacturers or customers of any acquired business due to changes in management and ownership and the inability to retain key employees of any acquired business. As a result, if we enter into acquisition or license agreements or strategic partnerships, we may not be able to realize the benefit of such transactions if we are unable to successfully integrate them with our existing operations and company culture. We also cannot be certain that, following a strategic transaction or license, we will achieve the revenue or other anticipated benefits that led us to enter into the arrangement.

Research and development collaborations are subject to numerous risks, which may include the following:

collaborators have significant discretion in determining the efforts and resources that they will apply to a collaboration, and may not commit sufficient efforts and resources, or may misapply those efforts and resources;
collaborators may not pursue development and commercialization of our structure-based drug discovery platform or collaboration product candidates or may elect not to continue or renew development or commercialization programs based on clinical trial results or changes in their strategic focus;
collaborators may delay, provide insufficient resources to, or modify or stop clinical trials for our structure-based drug discovery platform or collaboration product candidates;
collaborators could develop or acquire products outside of the collaboration that compete directly or indirectly with our products or product candidates;
collaborators may not properly maintain or defend our intellectual property rights or may use our intellectual property or proprietary information in a way that gives rise to actual or threatened litigation that could jeopardize or invalidate our intellectual property or proprietary information or expose us to potential liability;
disputes may arise between us and a collaborator that cause the delay or termination of the research, development or commercialization of our product candidates, or that result in costly litigation or arbitration that diverts management attention and resources;
collaborations may be terminated and, if terminated, may result in a need for additional capital and personnel to pursue further development or commercialization of our structure-based drug discovery platform or the applicable product candidates; and
collaborators may own or co-own intellectual property covering our products that results from our collaborating with them, and in such cases, we may not have the exclusive right to commercialize such intellectual property.

In addition, we face significant competition in seeking appropriate strategic partners and the negotiation process is time-consuming and complex. We may not be successful in our efforts to establish a strategic partnership or other alternative arrangements for our structure-based drug discovery platform or product

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candidates because they may be deemed to be at too early of a stage of development for collaborative effort and third parties may not view our product candidates as having the requisite potential to demonstrate safety and efficacy. If and when we collaborate with a third party for development and commercialization of a product candidate, we can expect to relinquish some or all of the control over the future success of that product candidate to the third party. Our ability to reach a definitive agreement for a collaboration will depend, among other things, upon our assessment of the collaborator’s resources and expertise, the terms and conditions of the proposed collaboration and the proposed collaborator’s evaluation of our technologies, product candidates and market opportunities. The collaborator may also consider alternative product candidates or technologies for similar indications that may be available to collaborate on and whether such a collaboration could be more attractive than the one with us for our product candidate. We may also be restricted under any license agreements from entering into agreements on certain terms or at all with potential collaborators.

As a result of these risks, we may not be able to realize the benefit of our existing collaborations or any future collaborations or licensing agreements we may enter into. In addition, there have been a significant number of recent business combinations among large pharmaceutical and biomedical companies that have resulted in a reduced number of potential future collaborators and changes to the strategies of the combined company. As a result, we may not be able to negotiate collaborations on a timely basis, on acceptable terms, or at all. In addition, we may face regulatory obstacles in completing such transactions. If we are unable to do so, we may have to curtail the development of such product candidate, reduce or delay one or more of our other development programs, delay the potential commercialization or reduce the scope of any planned sales or marketing activities for such product candidate, or increase our expenditures and undertake development, manufacturing or commercialization activities at our own expense. If we elect to increase our expenditures to fund development, manufacturing or commercialization activities on our own, we may need to obtain additional capital, which may not be available to us on acceptable terms or at all. If we do not have sufficient funds, we may not be able to further develop our structure-based drug discovery platform or product candidates or bring them to market and generate revenue.

Additionally, we may sometimes collaborate with academic institutions to accelerate our preclinical research or development under written agreements with these institutions. If collaborations occur, these institutions provide us with an option to negotiate a license to any of the institution’s rights in technology resulting from the collaboration. Regardless of such option, we may be unable to negotiate a license within the specified timeframe or under terms that are acceptable to us. If we are unable to do so, the institution may offer the intellectual property rights to other parties, potentially blocking our ability to pursue our program. If we are unable to successfully obtain rights to required third-party intellectual property or to maintain the existing intellectual property rights we have, we may have to abandon development of such program and our business and financial condition could suffer.

Our products require specific constituents to work effectively and efficiently, and rights to those constituents are, and in the future may be, held by others. We may also seek to in-license third-party technologies to enhance our structure-based drug discovery platform. We may be unable to in-license any rights from constituents, methods of use, processes or other third-party intellectual property rights from third parties that we identify. We may fail to obtain any of these licenses at a reasonable cost or on reasonable terms, which could harm our business. Even if we are able to obtain a license, it may be non-exclusive, thereby giving our competitors access to the same technologies licensed to us. In that event, we may be required to expend significant time and resources to develop or license replacement technology in order to establish or maintain our competitive position in the market. Any delays in entering into new collaborations or strategic partnership agreements related to our product candidates or our structure-based drug discovery platform could delay the development and commercialization of our product candidates in certain geographies or limit our ability to discover and develop new product candidates, which could harm our business prospects, financial condition, and results of operations.

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Our existing discovery collaborations with Schrödinger are important to our business. If we are unable to maintain these collaborations, or if these collaborations are not successful, our business could be adversely affected.

In October 2020, Lhotse, our wholly-owned subsidiary, entered into the Lhotse-Schrödinger Agreement. In November 2023, Aconcagua, our wholly-owned subsidiary, entered into the Aconcagua-Schrödinger Agreement. Under both agreements, Schrödinger uses its technology platform to perform virtual screens of members of the target class of human integrins, and we and Schrödinger collaborate to facilitate prioritization of targets, perform target validation and analysis, identify leads and perform lead optimization. Schrödinger has granted us an exclusive license to certain intellectual property related to our product candidates discovered under both agreements. See the discussion in Part I. Item 1. “Business—Lhotse Collaboration Agreement with Schrödinger” and Part I. Item 1. “Business—Aconcagua Collaboration Agreement with Schrödinger.”

Because we currently rely on Schrödinger for a substantial portion of our discovery capabilities, if Schrödinger delays or fails to perform its obligations under the Lhotse-Schrödinger Agreement or Aconcagua-Schrödinger Agreement, disagrees with our interpretation of the terms of the collaborations or our discovery plan or terminates the Lhotse-Schrödinger Agreement or Aconcagua-Schrödinger Agreement, our pipeline of product candidates would be adversely affected. Schrödinger may also fail to properly maintain or defend the intellectual property we have licensed from them, or even infringe upon, our intellectual property rights, leading to the potential invalidation of our intellectual property or subjecting us to litigation or arbitration, any of which would be time-consuming and expensive. Additionally, either party has the right to terminate the collaboration pursuant to the terms of the Lhotse-Schrödinger Agreement or Aconcagua-Schrödinger Agreement, as applicable. If either of our collaborations with Schrödinger is terminated, especially during our discovery phase, the development of our product candidates would be materially delayed or harmed.

Reliance on third parties requires us to share our trade secrets, which increases the possibility that a competitor will discover them or that our trade secrets will be misappropriated or disclosed.

Reliance on third parties to manufacture or commercialize our current or any future product candidates, and on collaborations with additional third parties for the development of our current or any future product candidates, requires us to share trade secrets with these third parties. We may also conduct joint research and development programs that may require us to share trade secrets under the terms of our research and development partnerships or similar agreements. We seek to protect our proprietary technology in part by entering into confidentiality agreements and, if applicable, material transfer agreements, services agreements, consulting agreements or other similar agreements with our advisors, employees, third-party contractors and consultants prior to beginning research or disclosing proprietary information. These agreements typically limit the rights of the third parties to use or disclose our confidential information, including our trade secrets. Despite the contractual provisions employed when working with third parties, the need to share trade secrets and other confidential information increases the risk that such trade secrets become known by our competitors, are inadvertently incorporated into the technology of others, or are disclosed or used in violation of these agreements. Given that our proprietary position is based, in part, on our know-how and trade secrets, a competitor’s discovery of our trade secrets or other unauthorized use or disclosure could have an adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

In addition, these agreements typically restrict the ability of our advisors, employees, third-party contractors and consultants to publish data potentially relating to our trade secrets. Despite our efforts to protect our trade secrets, our competitors may discover our trade secrets, either through breach of our agreements with third parties, independent development or publication of information by any third-party collaborators. A competitor’s discovery of our trade secrets could harm our business.

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Confidentiality agreements with employees and third parties may not prevent unauthorized disclosure of trade secrets and other proprietary information.

In addition to the protection afforded by patents, we seek to rely on trade secret protection and confidentiality agreements to protect proprietary know-how that is not patentable or that we elect not to patent, processes for which patents are difficult to enforce, and any other elements of our product candidates, technology and product discovery and development processes that involve proprietary know-how, information, or technology that is not covered by patents. Any disclosure, either intentional or unintentional, by our employees, the employees of third parties with whom we share our facilities or third-party consultants and vendors that we engage to perform research, clinical trials or manufacturing activities, or misappropriation by third parties (such as through a cybersecurity breach) of our trade secrets or proprietary information could enable competitors to duplicate or surpass our technological achievements, thus eroding our competitive position in our market. Because we expect to rely on third parties in the development and manufacture of our product candidates, we must, at times, share trade secrets with them. Our reliance on third parties requires us to share our trade secrets, which increases the possibility that a competitor will discover them or that our trade secrets will be misappropriated or disclosed.

Trade secrets and confidential information, however, may be difficult to protect. We seek to protect our trade secrets, know-how and confidential information, including our proprietary processes, in part, by entering into confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants, outside scientific advisors, contractors, and collaborators. With our consultants, contractors, and outside scientific collaborators, these agreements typically include invention assignment obligations. Although we use reasonable efforts to protect our trade secrets, our employees, consultants, outside scientific advisors, contractors, and collaborators might intentionally or inadvertently disclose our trade secret information, including to competitors. In addition, competitors or other third-parties may otherwise gain access to our trade secrets or independently develop substantially equivalent information and techniques. Despite our efforts, any of these parties may breach the agreements and disclose our proprietary information, including our trade secrets, and we may not be able to obtain adequate remedies for such breaches. Enforcing a claim that a party illegally disclosed or misappropriated a trade secret is difficult, expensive and time-consuming, and the outcome is unpredictable. If any of our trade secrets were to be lawfully obtained or independently developed by a competitor or other third party, we would have no right to prevent them from using that technology or information to compete with us. Furthermore, the laws of some foreign countries do not protect proprietary rights to the same extent or in the same manner as the laws of the United States. As a result, we may encounter significant problems in protecting and defending our intellectual property both in the United States and abroad. If we are unable to prevent unauthorized material disclosure of our intellectual property to third parties, or misappropriation of our intellectual property by third parties, we may not be able to establish or maintain a competitive advantage in our market, which could materially adversely affect our business, operating results, and financial condition.

The adoption and deployment of artificial intelligence (“AI”) in our, and any third-party collaborators’ operations, and in particular our and any third-party collaborators’ research and development (“R&D”) efforts to explore new targets and develop effective products, may not be effective and may expose us to risk.

The industry in which we compete is characterized by rapid technological advancements, frequent introductions of new products and heavy competition. The discovery of new products and targets remain vital to our success and the implementation by us and by any third-party collaborators of artificial intelligence technologies and processes, including advanced predictive analytics, computational approaches for drug discovery and so-called “generative” AI, has the potential to provide significant benefits in these areas. Use of AI in our efforts may be difficult to deploy successfully due to operational issues inherent in such methods. In particular, the AI algorithms utilize machine learning and predictive analytics which may lead to flawed, biased, and inaccurate results, which could lead to ineffective product or target candidates and exposure to competitive and reputational harm. We face increased competition from other companies that are using AI and related methods for drug discovery, some of which have more resources than we do and may have developed more effective methods than we and any third-party collaborators have, which may reduce our and any third-party collaborator’s effectiveness in identifying potential targets and attracting additional

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collaborators to work with us. Even with the successful implementation of AI, we may fail to correctly identify indications and allocate resources efficiently, which could adversely impact our pipeline and ability to compete effectively.

Further, AI presents additional risks and challenges, especially as the use of these technologies becomes more important to our operations over time. Generative AI may be used improperly or inappropriately which could lead to the tainting of our proprietary information and render us unable to qualify for patent protection. Their use by people, including our vendors, employees, suppliers and contractors, with access to our proprietary and confidential information, including trade secrets, may continue to increase and may lead to the release of such information, which may impact our ability to realize the benefit of our intellectual property. Our use of generative AI platforms may lead to novel and urgent cybersecurity risks, which may adversely affect our operations and reputation, as well as the operations of any third-party collaborators. Emerging ethical issues surround the use of AI, and we may be subject to reputational and legal risk if our deployment or use of AI becomes controversial. Regulators could limit our, or any third-party collaborator’s ability to develop or implement AI-based technologies as part of measures taken against us or any third-party collaborators in particular or as a consequence of broader legislation, which could have an adverse effect on our or any third-party collaborators’ business, results of operations and financial conditions. Uncertainty in the legal regulatory regime may require significant resources to modify and maintain business practices to comply with U.S. and non-U.S. laws, the nature of which cannot be determined at this time.

Risks Related to Commercialization of Our Product Candidates

Even if we receive regulatory approval for any product candidate, we will be subject to ongoing regulatory obligations and continued regulatory review, which may result in significant additional expense. Additionally, our product candidates, if approved, could be subject to labeling and other restrictions on marketing or withdrawal from the market, and we may be subject to penalties if we fail to comply with regulatory requirements or if we experience unanticipated problems with our product candidates, when and if any of them are approved.

Even if we obtain any marketing approval for our current or any future product candidates, such approvals will be subject to ongoing regulatory requirements for manufacturing, labeling, packaging, storage, advertising, promotion, sampling, record-keeping and submission of safety and other post-market information. These requirements include submissions of safety and other post-marketing information and reports, registration, as well as on-going compliance with cGMPs and GCPs, for any clinical trials that we may conduct post-approval. Any marketing approvals that we receive for our current or future product candidates may also be subject to a REMS, limitations on the approved indicated uses for which the drug may be marketed or to the conditions of approval, or contain requirements for potentially costly post-marketing testing, including Phase 4 trials, and surveillance to monitor the quality, safety and efficacy of the drug.

In addition, drug manufacturers and their facilities are subject to payment of user fees and continual review and periodic inspections by the FDA and other regulatory authorities for compliance with cGMP requirements and adherence to commitments made in the NDA or foreign marketing application. If we or a regulatory authority discover previously unknown problems with a drug, such as AEs of unanticipated severity or frequency, or problems with the facility where the drug is manufactured or if a regulatory authority disagrees with the promotion, marketing or labeling of that drug, a regulatory authority may impose restrictions relative to that drug, the manufacturing facility or us, including requesting a recall or requiring withdrawal of the drug from the market or suspension of manufacturing.

If we fail to comply with applicable regulatory requirements following approval of our current or future product candidates, a regulatory authority may, among other things:

issue an untitled letter or warning letter asserting that we are in violation of the law;
seek an injunction or impose administrative, civil or criminal penalties or monetary fines;
suspend or withdraw marketing approval;

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suspend any ongoing clinical trials;
refuse to approve a pending NDA or NDA supplement, or comparable foreign marketing application (or any supplements thereto) submitted by us or our strategic partners;
restrict or suspend the marketing or manufacturing of the drug;
seize or detain the drug or otherwise require the withdrawal of the drug from the market;
refuse to permit the import or export of product candidates; or
refuse to allow us to enter into supply contracts, including government contracts.

In addition, if any of our product candidates is approved, our product labeling, advertising and promotion will be subject to regulatory requirements and continuing regulatory review. The FDA strictly regulates the promotional claims that may be made about drug products. In particular, a product may not be promoted for uses that are not approved by the FDA as reflected in the product’s approved labeling. If we receive marketing approval for a product candidate, physicians may nevertheless prescribe it to their patients in a manner that is inconsistent with the approved label. If we are found to have promoted such off-label uses, we may become subject to significant liability. The FDA and other agencies actively enforce the laws and regulations prohibiting the promotion of off-label uses, and a company that is found to have improperly promoted off-label uses may be subject to significant sanctions. The federal government has levied large civil and criminal fines against companies for alleged improper promotion and has enjoined several companies from engaging in off-label promotion. The government has also required companies to enter into consent decrees and/or imposed permanent injunctions under which specified promotional conduct is changed or curtailed.

The FDA’s policies, and those of equivalent foreign regulatory agencies, may change and additional government regulations may be enacted that could cause changes to or delays in the drug review process, or suspend or restrict marketing approval of our product candidates. We cannot predict the likelihood, nature or extent of government regulation that may arise from future legislation or administrative action, either in the United States or abroad. If we are slow or unable to adapt to changes in existing requirements or the adoption of new requirements or policies, or if we are not able to maintain regulatory compliance, we may be subject to enforcement action and we may not achieve or sustain profitability, which would harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Even if our current or future product candidates receive marketing approval, they may fail to achieve market acceptance by physicians, patients, third-party payors or others in the medical community necessary for commercial success.

Even if our current or future product candidates receive marketing approval, they may fail to gain sufficient market acceptance by physicians, patients, third-party payors and others in the medical community. If they do not achieve an adequate level of acceptance, we may not generate significant product revenue and may not become profitable. The degree of market acceptance of our current or future product candidates, if approved for commercial sale, will depend on a number of factors, including but not limited to:

the clinical indications for which the product candidate is approved;
the efficacy and potential advantages compared to alternative treatments and therapies;
the timing of market introduction of the product as well as competitive products;
effectiveness of sales and marketing efforts;
the strength of our relationships with patient communities;
the cost of treatment in relation to alternative treatments and therapies, including any similar generic treatments;
our ability to offer such product for sale at competitive prices;

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the convenience and ease of administration compared to alternative treatments and therapies;
the willingness of the target patient population to try new therapies and of physicians to prescribe these therapies;
the availability of third-party coverage and adequate reimbursement;
the willingness of patients to pay out-of-pocket in the absence of coverage and adequate reimbursement by third-party payors and government authorities;
the strength of marketing and distribution support;
the prevalence and severity of any side effects; and
any restrictions on the use of the product together with other medications.

Our efforts to educate physicians, patients, third-party payors and others in the medical community on the benefits of our product candidates may require significant resources and may never be successful. Such efforts may require more resources than are typically required due to the complexity and uniqueness of our product candidates. Because we expect sales of our product candidates, if approved, to generate substantially all of our revenues for the foreseeable future, the failure of our product candidates, if approved, to find market acceptance would harm our business and could require us to seek additional financing.

Coverage and adequate reimbursement may not be available for our current or any future product candidates, which could make it difficult for us to sell profitably, if approved.

Market acceptance and sales of any product candidates that we commercialize, if approved, will depend in part on the extent to which coverage and adequate reimbursement for these drugs and related treatments will be available from third-party payors, including government health administration authorities, managed care organizations and other private health insurers. Third-party payors decide which therapies they will pay for and establish reimbursement levels. Commercial payors often rely upon Medicare coverage policy and payment limitations in setting their own coverage and reimbursement policies. However, decisions regarding the extent of coverage and amount of reimbursement to be provided for any product candidates that we develop will be made on a payor-by-payor basis. One third-party payor’s determination to provide coverage for a drug does not assure that other payors will also provide coverage, and adequate reimbursement, for the drug. Additionally, a third-party payor’s decision to provide coverage for a therapy does not imply that an adequate reimbursement rate will be approved. Each third-party payor determines whether or not it will provide coverage for a therapy, what amount it will pay the manufacturer for the therapy, and on what tier of its formulary it will be placed. The position on a third-party payor’s list of covered drugs, or formulary, generally determines the co-payment that a patient will need to make to obtain the therapy and can strongly influence the adoption of such therapy by patients and physicians. Patients who are prescribed treatments for their conditions and providers prescribing such services generally rely on third-party payors to reimburse all or part of the associated healthcare costs. Patients are unlikely to use our drugs unless coverage is provided and reimbursement is adequate to cover a significant portion of the cost of our drugs.

A primary trend in the U.S. healthcare industry and elsewhere is cost containment. Third-party payors have attempted to control costs by limiting coverage and the amount of reimbursement for particular medications. We cannot be sure that coverage and reimbursement will be available for any drug that we commercialize and, if reimbursement is available, what the level of reimbursement will be. Inadequate coverage and reimbursement may impact the demand for, or the price of, any drug for which we obtain marketing approval. If coverage and adequate reimbursement are not available, or are available only to limited levels, we may not be able to successfully commercialize our current and any future product candidates that we develop, which could have an adverse effect on our operating results and our overall financial condition. Further, coverage policies and third-party payor reimbursement rates may change at any time. Therefore, even if favorable coverage and reimbursement status is attained for one or more products for which we receive marketing approval, less favorable coverage policies and reimbursement rates may be implemented in the future.

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We face substantial competition, which may result in others discovering, developing or commercializing products before or more successfully than us.

The biotechnology and biopharmaceutical industries are characterized by rapidly advancing technologies. Our future success will depend in part on our ability to maintain a competitive position with our structure-based drug discovery platform. If we fail to stay at the forefront of technological change in utilizing our platform to create and develop product candidates, we may be unable to compete effectively. Our competitors may render our approach obsolete by advances in existing technological approaches or the development of new or different approaches, potentially eliminating the advantages in our drug discovery process that we believe we derive from our research approach and platform.

In addition, we face competition with respect to our current product candidates and will face competition with respect to any other product candidates that we may seek to develop or commercialize in the future, from major pharmaceutical companies, specialty pharmaceutical companies and biotechnology companies worldwide. There are a number of large pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies that currently market and sell products or are pursuing the development of product candidates for the treatment of the indications that we are pursuing. Potential competitors also include academic institutions, government agencies and other public and private research organizations that conduct research, seek patent protection and establish collaborative arrangements for research, development, manufacturing and commercialization.

We are aware of GLP-1R small molecules in development by Pfizer, Eli Lilly, and Qilu Regor Therapeutics Inc. There are currently approved GLP-1R peptides for the treatment of diabetes and obesity marketed by Novo Nordisk, Eli Lilly, AstraZeneca, and Sanofi. We are also aware of other GLP-1R plus dual/tri incretin targeting peptides in development by Eli Lilly, Jiangsu Hansoh Pharmaceutical Group Co., Ltd., Boehringer Ingelheim, Altimmune, Inc., Carmot Therapeutics, Inc. (which was acquired by Roche Group in January 2024), and Sciwind Biosciences Co., Ltd. Additionally, we are aware of APJR targeted product candidates in development for COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome by CohBar, Inc.; IPF, systemic sclerosis interstitial lung disease, and kidney nephrotic syndrome by Apie Therapeutics; and muscle atrophy by BioAge Labs, Inc. Both Amgen and BMS have APJR targeted product candidates for heart failure. Furthermore, we are aware of LPA1R targeted product candidates in development for IPF by BMS, Horizon Therapeutics plc, which was recently acquired by Amgen, and DJS Antibodies Ltd; myelin restoration and neuroinflammation by Pipeline Therapeutics.

Many of our competitors, either alone or with their collaborators, have significantly greater financial, technical, manufacturing, marketing, sales and supply resources or experience than we do. If we successfully obtain approval for any product candidate, we will face competition based on many different factors, including the safety and effectiveness of our products, the timing and scope of marketing approvals for these products, the availability and cost of manufacturing, marketing and sales capabilities, price, reimbursement coverage and patent position. Competing products could present superior treatment alternatives, including by being more effective, safer, more convenient, less expensive or marketed and sold more effectively than any products we may develop. Competitive products may make any products we develop obsolete or noncompetitive before we recover the expense of developing and commercializing our product candidates. If we are unable to compete effectively, our opportunity to generate revenue from the sale of our products we may develop, if approved, could be adversely affected.

Mergers and acquisitions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries may result in even more resources being concentrated among a smaller number of our competitors. Smaller and other early-stage companies may also prove to be significant competitors, particularly through collaborative arrangements with large and established companies. These third parties compete with us in recruiting and retaining qualified scientific, management and commercial personnel, establishing clinical trial sites and subject registration for clinical trials, as well as in acquiring technologies complementary to, or necessary for, our programs. Any failure to compete effectively could harm our business, financial condition and operating results.

In addition, we and any third-party collaborators are facing increasing competition from companies utilizing AI and other computational approaches for drug discovery. Some of these competitors are involved in drug

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discovery themselves and/or with partners, and others develop software or as well as other tools utilizing AI which can be used, directly or indirectly, in drug discovery. To the extent these other AI approaches to drug discovery prove to be successful, or more successful, than our and any third-party collaborators’ approach, our business, financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.

If the market opportunities for any of our product candidates are smaller than we estimate, even assuming approval of a product candidate, our revenue may be adversely affected, and our business may suffer.

The precise incidence and prevalence for all the conditions we aim to address with our product candidates are unknown. Our projections of both the number of people who have these diseases, as well as the subset of people with these diseases who have the potential to benefit from treatment with our product candidates, are based on our beliefs and estimates. These estimates have been derived from a variety of sources, including scientific literature, surveys of clinics, patient foundations or market research, and may prove to be incorrect. Further, new information may change the estimated incidence or prevalence of these diseases. The total addressable market across all of our product candidates will ultimately depend upon, among other things, the diagnosis criteria included in the final label for each of our product candidates approved for sale for these indications, the availability of alternative treatments and the safety, convenience, cost and efficacy of our product candidates relative to such alternative treatments, acceptance by the medical community and patient access, drug pricing and reimbursement. The number of patients in the United States and other major markets and elsewhere may turn out to be lower than expected, patients may not be otherwise amenable to treatment with our products or new patients may become increasingly difficult to identify or gain access to, all of which would adversely affect our results of operations and our business.

We currently have no marketing and sales organization and have no experience as a company in commercializing products, and we may invest significant resources to develop these capabilities. If we are unable to establish marketing and sales capabilities or enter into agreements with third parties to market and sell our products, we may not be able to generate product revenue.

We have no internal sales, marketing or distribution capabilities, nor have we as a company commercialized a product. If any of our product candidates ultimately receives marketing approval, we will be required to build a marketing and sales organization with technical expertise and supporting distribution capabilities to commercialize each such product in the markets that we target, which will be expensive and time consuming, or collaborate with third parties that have direct sales forces and established distribution systems, either to augment our own sales force and distribution systems or in lieu of our own sales force and distribution systems. We have no prior experience as a company in the marketing, sale and distribution of biopharmaceutical products and there are significant risks involved in building and managing a sales organization, including our ability to hire, retain and incentivize qualified individuals, generate sufficient sales leads, provide adequate training to sales and marketing personnel and effectively manage a geographically dispersed sales and marketing team. Any failure or delay in the development of our internal sales, marketing and distribution capabilities would adversely impact the commercialization of these products. We may not be able to enter into collaborations or hire consultants or external service providers to assist us in sales, marketing and distribution functions on acceptable financial terms, or at all. In addition, our product revenues and our profitability, if any, may be lower if we rely on third parties for these functions than if we were to market, sell and distribute any products that we develop ourselves. We likely will have little control over such third parties, and any of them may fail to devote the necessary resources and attention to sell and market our products effectively. If we are not successful in commercializing our products, either on our own or through arrangements with one or more third parties, we may not be able to generate any future product revenue and we would incur significant additional losses.

Our future growth may depend, in part, on our ability to commercialize products in foreign markets, where we would be subject to additional regulatory burdens and other risks and uncertainties.

Our future growth may depend, in part, on our ability to develop and commercialize our product candidates in foreign markets. We are not permitted to market or promote any of our product candidates before we receive

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regulatory approval from applicable regulatory authorities in foreign markets, and we may never receive such regulatory approvals for any of our product candidates. To obtain separate regulatory approval in many other countries we must comply with numerous and varying regulatory requirements regarding safety and efficacy and governing, among other things, clinical trials, commercial sales, pricing and distribution of our product candidates. If we obtain regulatory approval of our product candidates and ultimately commercialize our products in foreign markets, we would be subject to additional risks and uncertainties, including:

different regulatory requirements for approval of drugs in foreign countries;
reduced protection for intellectual property rights;
the existence of additional third-party patent rights of potential relevance to our business;
unexpected changes in tariffs, trade barriers and regulatory requirements;
economic weakness, including inflation, or political instability in particular foreign economies and markets;
compliance with tax, employment, immigration and labor laws for employees living or traveling abroad;
foreign currency fluctuations, which could result in increased operating expenses and reduced revenues, and other obligations incident to doing business in another country;
foreign reimbursement, pricing and insurance regimes;
workforce uncertainty in countries where labor unrest is common;
production shortages resulting from any events affecting raw material supply or manufacturing capabilities abroad; and
business interruptions resulting from geopolitical actions, including war and terrorism, or natural disasters including earthquakes, typhoons, floods and fires.

Risks Related to Our Business Operations and Industry

Our operating results may fluctuate significantly, which makes our future operating results difficult to predict and could cause our operating results to fall below expectations or any guidance we may provide.

Our quarterly and annual operating results may fluctuate significantly, which makes it difficult for us to predict our future operating results. These fluctuations may occur due to a variety of factors, many of which are outside of our control, including, but not limited to:

the timing, degree of success and cost of, and level of investment in, research, development, regulatory approval and commercialization activities relating to our product candidates, which may change from time to time;
coverage and reimbursement policies with respect to our product candidates, if approved, and potential future drugs that compete with our products;
the cost of manufacturing our product candidates, which may vary depending on the quantity of production and the terms of our agreements with third-party manufacturers;
expenditures that we may incur to acquire, develop or commercialize additional product candidates and technologies;
the level of demand for any approved products, which may vary significantly;
future accounting pronouncements or changes in our accounting policies; and

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the timing and success or failure of preclinical studies or clinical trials for our product candidates or any competing product candidates, or any other change in the competitive landscape of our industry, including consolidation among our competitors or partners.

The cumulative effects of these factors could result in large fluctuations and unpredictability in our quarterly and annual operating results. As a result, comparing our operating results on a period-to-period basis may not be meaningful. Investors should not rely on our past results as an indication of our future performance. This variability and unpredictability could also result in our failing to meet the expectations of industry or financial analysts or investors for any period. If our revenue or operating results fall below the expectations of analysts or investors or below any forecasts we may provide to the market, or if the forecasts we provide to the market are below the expectations of analysts or investors, the price of our ADSs could decline substantially. Such a price decline could occur even when we have met any previously publicly stated revenue or earnings guidance we may provide.

We are highly dependent on the services of our senior management team and if we are not able to retain these members of our management team and recruit and retain additional management, clinical and scientific personnel, our business will be harmed.

We are highly dependent on our senior management team. The employment agreements we have with these officers do not prevent such persons from terminating their employment with us at any time. The loss of the services of any of these persons could impede the achievement of our research, development and commercialization objectives. In addition, we will need to attract, retain and motivate highly qualified additional management, clinical and scientific personnel. If we are not able to retain our management and to attract, on terms acceptable to us, additional qualified personnel necessary for the continued development of our business, we may not be able to sustain our operations or grow.

We may not be able to attract or retain qualified personnel in the future due to the intense competition for qualified personnel among biotechnology, pharmaceutical and other businesses. Many of the other pharmaceutical companies that we compete against for qualified personnel and consultants have greater financial and other resources, different risk profiles and a longer operating history in the industry than we do. They also may provide more diverse opportunities and better chances for career advancement. Some of these characteristics may be more appealing to high-quality candidates and consultants than what we have to offer. If we are unable to attract, retain and motivate high-quality personnel and consultants to accomplish our business objectives, the rate and success at which we can discover and develop product candidates and our business will be limited and we may experience constraints on our development objectives.

Our future performance will also depend, in part, on our ability to successfully integrate newly hired executive officers into our management team and our ability to develop an effective working relationship among senior management. Our failure to integrate these individuals and create effective working relationships among them and other members of management could result in inefficiencies in the development and commercialization of our product candidates, harming future marketing approvals, sales of our product candidates and our results of operations. Additionally, we do not currently maintain “key person” life insurance on the lives of our executives or any of our employees.

We will need to expand our organization, and we may experience difficulties in managing this growth, which could disrupt our operations.

As of December 31, 2023, we had 93 full-time employees. As we advance our research and development programs, we may need to further increase the number of our employees and the scope of our operations, particularly in the areas of clinical development, discovery biology, chemistry, manufacturing, general and administrative matters related to being a public company, regulatory affairs and, if any of our product candidates receives marketing approval, sales, marketing and distribution. To manage any future growth, we must:

identify, recruit, integrate, maintain and motivate additional qualified personnel;

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manage our development efforts effectively, including the initiation and conduct of clinical trials for our product candidates; and
improve our operational, financial and management controls, reporting systems and procedures.

Our future financial performance and our ability to develop, manufacture and commercialize our product candidates, if approved, will depend, in part, on our ability to effectively manage any future growth, and our management may also have to divert financial and other resources, and a disproportionate amount of its attention away from day-to-day activities, to managing these growth activities.

If we are not able to effectively expand our organization by hiring new employees and expanding our groups of consultants and contractors, we may not be able to successfully implement the tasks necessary to further develop and commercialize our product candidates and, accordingly, may not achieve our research, development and commercialization goals.

We conduct certain research and development operations through our Australian wholly-owned subsidiaries. If we lose our ability to operate in Australia, or if any of our subsidiaries are unable to receive the research and development tax credit allowed by Australian regulations, or are required to refund any research and development tax credit previously received or reserve for such credit in our financial statements, our business and results of operations could suffer.

In 2021, we formed two wholly-owned Australian subsidiaries, Annapurna Bio Pty Limited (“Annapurna AU”) and Gasherbrum Bio Pty Limited (“Gasherbrum AU”), to conduct various preclinical and clinical activities for our product and development candidates in Australia. Due to the geographical distance and lack of employees currently in Australia, as well as our lack of experience operating in Australia, we may not be able to efficiently or successfully monitor, develop and commercialize our lead products in Australia, including conducting clinical trials. Furthermore, we have no assurance that the results of any clinical trials that we conduct for our product candidates in Australia will be accepted by the FDA or applicable foreign authorities.

In addition, current Australian tax regulations provide for a refundable research and development tax credit equal to 43.5% of qualified expenditures. Although we have previously claimed a refundable research and development tax credit there is a possibility that we may not be able to claim such credit or we might qualify for a lesser credit. If we lose our ability to operate Annapurna AU or Gasherbrum AU in Australia, or if in the future we are ineligible or unable to receive the research and development tax credit or are required to refund any research and development tax credit previously received or have to reserve for such credit in our financial statements, or if the Australian government significantly reduces or eliminates the tax credit, our business and results of operation may be adversely affected.

Our relationships with customers, physicians and other healthcare providers, and third-party payors may be subject, directly or indirectly, to federal and state healthcare fraud and abuse laws, false claims laws, other healthcare laws and regulations and health data privacy and security laws and regulations, contractual obligations and self-regulatory schemes. If we are unable to comply, or have not fully complied, with such laws, we could face substantial penalties.

Healthcare providers and third-party payors in the United States and elsewhere will play a primary role in the recommendation and prescription of any product candidates for which we obtain marketing approval. Our current and future arrangements with healthcare professionals, principal investigators, consultants, customers and third-party payors may subject us to various federal and state fraud and abuse laws and other healthcare laws, including, without limitation, the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, the federal civil and criminal false claims laws and the law commonly referred to as the Physician Payments Sunshine Act and regulations. These laws will impact, among other things, our clinical research, as well as our proposed sales and marketing programs. In addition, we may be subject to health information privacy and security laws by the federal government, the

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states and other jurisdictions in which we may conduct our business. The laws that may affect our operations include, but are not limited to:

the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which prohibits, among other things, persons or entities from knowingly and willfully soliciting, receiving, offering or paying any remuneration (including any kickback, bribe or rebate), directly or indirectly, overtly or covertly, in cash or in kind, in return for the purchase, recommendation, leasing or furnishing of an item or service reimbursable under a federal healthcare program, such as the Medicare and Medicaid programs. This statute has been interpreted to apply to, among other things, arrangements between pharmaceutical manufacturers on the one hand, and prescribers, purchasers and formulary managers on the other. A person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of this statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation;
federal civil and criminal false claims laws, including, without limitation, the False Claims Act, and civil monetary penalty laws, such as the Civil Monetary Penalties Law, which prohibit, among other things, individuals or entities from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, claims for payment or approval from Medicare, Medicaid or other government payors that are false or fraudulent or making a false statement to avoid, decrease or conceal an obligation to pay money to the federal government. In addition, the government may assert that a claim including items or services resulting from a violation of the federal Anti-Kickback Statute constitutes a false or fraudulent claim for purposes of the federal False Claims Act;
the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (“HIPAA”), which created additional federal criminal statutes that prohibit, among other things, a person from knowingly and willfully executing a scheme or making false or fraudulent statements to defraud any healthcare benefit program, regardless of the payor (e.g., public or private). Similar to the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, a person or entity does not need to have actual knowledge of this statute or specific intent to violate it in order to have committed a violation;
HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009 (“HITECH”), and their implementing regulations, which imposes certain requirements relating to the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information without appropriate authorization by entities subject to the rule, such as health plans, healthcare clearinghouses and certain healthcare providers, known as covered entities, and their respective business associates and covered contractors, individuals or entities that perform certain services on behalf of a covered entity that involves the use or disclosure of individually identifiable health information and their subcontractors that use, disclose or otherwise process individually identifiable health information;
The Physician Payments Sunshine Act, which requires certain manufacturers of drugs, devices, biologics and medical supplies for which payment is available under Medicare, Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program, with specific exceptions, to report annually to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (“CMS”) information related to: (i) payments or other “transfers of value” made to physicians (defined to include doctors, dentists, optometrists, podiatrists and chiropractors), other healthcare professionals (such as physician assistants and nurse practitioners), and teaching hospitals; and (ii) ownership and investment interests held by physicians and their immediate family members;
state and foreign law equivalents of each of the above federal laws, state laws that require manufacturers to report information related to payments and other transfers of value to physicians and other healthcare providers or marketing expenditures and/or information regarding drug pricing, state laws that require pharmaceutical companies to comply with the pharmaceutical industry’s voluntary compliance guidelines and the relevant compliance guidance promulgated by the federal government or to adopt compliance programs as prescribed by state laws and regulations, or that otherwise restrict payments that may be made to healthcare providers, state laws and regulations that require drug manufacturers to file reports relating to drug pricing and marketing information, and state and local laws that require the registration of pharmaceutical sales representatives; and

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state and foreign laws that govern the privacy and security of personal information, including health-related information in some circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and often are not preempted by HIPAA, thus complicating compliance efforts.

Because of the breadth of these laws and the limited statutory exceptions and regulatory safe harbors available, it is possible that some of our business activities, including certain scientific advisory board agreements with physicians who are compensated in the form of ordinary shares or share options in addition to cash consideration, could be subject to challenge under one or more of such laws.

Efforts to ensure that our business arrangements with third parties will comply with applicable healthcare laws and regulations will involve substantial costs. Any action against us for violation of these laws, even if we successfully defend against it, could cause us to incur significant legal expenses and divert our management’s attention from the operation of our business. The shifting compliance environment and the need to build and maintain robust and expandable systems to comply with multiple jurisdictions with different compliance and/or reporting requirements increases the possibility that a healthcare company may run afoul of one or more of the requirements.

If our operations are found to be in violation of any of these laws or any other governmental regulations that may apply to us, we may be subject to significant civil, criminal and administrative penalties, damages, fines, disgorgement, imprisonment, exclusion from participation in government funded healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, additional reporting requirements and oversight if we become subject to a corporate integrity agreement or similar agreement to resolve allegations of non-compliance with these laws and the curtailment or restructuring of our operations.

Healthcare legislative reform measures may have a negative impact on our business and results of operations.

In the United States and some foreign jurisdictions, there have been, and continue to be, several legislative and regulatory changes and proposed changes regarding the healthcare system that could prevent or delay marketing approval of product candidates, restrict or regulate post-approval activities, and affect our ability to profitably sell any product candidates for which we obtain marketing approval.

Among policy makers and payors in the United States and elsewhere, there is significant interest in promoting changes in healthcare systems with the stated goals of containing healthcare costs, improving quality and/or expanding access. In the United States, the pharmaceutical industry has been a particular focus of these efforts and has been significantly affected by major legislative initiatives. In March 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act (collectively, the “ACA,”) was passed, which substantially changed the way healthcare is financed by both the government and private insurers, and significantly impacts the U.S. pharmaceutical industry.

Since its enactment, there have been judicial, Congressional and executive branch challenges to certain aspects of the ACA. On June 17, 2021, the U.S. Supreme Court dismissed the most recent judicial challenge to the ACA brought by several states on procedural grounds without specifically ruling on the constitutionality of the ACA. In addition, on August 16, 2022, President Biden signed the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 (“IRA”) into law, which among other things, extends enhanced subsidies for individuals purchasing health insurance coverage in ACA marketplaces through plan year 2025. The IRA also eliminates the “donut hole” under the Medicare Part D program beginning in 2025 by significantly lowering the beneficiary maximum out-of-pocket cost and through a newly established manufacturer discount program. It is possible the ACA will be subject to judicial or Congressional challenges in the future.

Also, there has been heightened governmental scrutiny recently over the manner in which drug manufacturers set prices for their marketed products, which have resulted in several Congressional inquiries, presidential executive orders, and proposed and enacted federal and state legislation designed to, among other things, bring more transparency to product pricing, review the relationship between pricing and manufacturer patient programs, and reform government program reimbursement methodologies for drug

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products. For example, at the federal level, in July 2021, the Biden administration released an executive order with multiple provisions aimed at prescription drugs. In response to Biden’s executive order, on September 9, 2021, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (“HHS”) released a Comprehensive Plan for Addressing High Drug Prices that outlines principles for drug pricing reform and sets out a variety of potential legislative policies that Congress could pursue to advance these principles. In addition, the IRA, among other things, (1) directs the HHS to negotiate the price of certain single-source drugs and biologics covered under Medicare and (2) imposes rebates under Medicare Part B and Medicare Part D to penalize price increases that outpace inflation. These provisions take effect progressively starting in fiscal year 2023. On August 29, 2023, HHS announced the list of the first ten drugs that will be subject to price negotiations, although the Medicare drug price negotiation program is currently subject to legal challenges. HHS has and will continue to issue and update guidance as these programs are implemented. It is currently unclear how the IRA will be implemented but it is likely to have a significant impact on the pharmaceutical industry. In addition, in response to the Biden administration’s October 2022 executive order, on February 14, 2023, HHS released a report outlining three new models for testing by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation which will be evaluated on their ability to lower the cost of drugs, promote accessibility, and improve quality of care. It is unclear whether the models will be utilized in any health reform measures in the future. Further, on December 7, 2023, the Biden administration announced an initiative to control the price of prescription drugs through the use of march-in rights under the Bayh-Dole Act. On December 8, 2023, the National Institute of Standards and Technology published for comment a Draft Interagency Guidance Framework for Considering the Exercise of March-In Rights which for the first time includes the price of a product as one factor an agency can use when deciding to exercise march-in rights. While march-in rights have not previously been exercised, it is uncertain if that will continue under the new framework.

Individual states in the United States have also become increasingly active in passing legislation and implementing regulations designed to control pharmaceutical product pricing, including price or patient reimbursement constraints, discounts, restrictions on certain product access and marketing cost disclosure and transparency measures, and, in some cases, designed to encourage importation from other countries and bulk purchasing. For example, on January 5, 2024, the FDA approved Florida’s Section 804 Importation Program (“SIP”) proposal to import certain drugs from Canada for specific state healthcare programs. It is unclear how this program will be implemented, including which drugs will be chosen, and whether it will be subject to legal challenges in the United States or Canada. Other states have also submitted SIP proposals that are pending review by the FDA. In addition, regional healthcare authorities and individual hospitals are increasingly using bidding procedures to determine what pharmaceutical products and which suppliers will be included in their prescription drug and other healthcare programs. We expect that additional state and federal healthcare reform measures will be adopted in the future.

We cannot predict what healthcare reform initiatives may be adopted in the future. We expect that these and other healthcare reform measures that may be adopted in the future, may result in more rigorous coverage criteria and additional downward pressure on the price that we receive for any approved drug. Any reduction in reimbursement from Medicare or other government programs may result in a similar reduction in payments from private payors. The implementation of cost containment measures or other healthcare reforms may prevent us from being able to generate revenue, attain profitability, or commercialize our drugs.

If we or our third-party manufacturers use hazardous and biological materials in a manner that causes injury or violates applicable law, we may be liable for damages.

Our research and development activities involve the controlled use of potentially hazardous substances, including chemical and biological materials, by our third-party manufacturers. Our manufacturers are subject to federal, state, and local laws and regulations in the United States and foreign jurisdictions governing the use, manufacture, storage, handling and disposal of medical, radioactive and hazardous materials. Although we believe that our manufacturers’ procedures for using, handling, storing and disposing of these materials comply with legally prescribed standards, we cannot completely eliminate the risk of contamination or injury resulting from medical, radioactive or hazardous materials. As a result of any such contamination or injury, we may incur liability or local, city, state or federal authorities may curtail the use of these materials and interrupt our business operations. In the event of an accident, we could be held liable for damages or penalized with

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fines, and the liability could exceed our resources. We do not have any insurance for liabilities arising from medical radioactive or hazardous materials. Compliance with applicable environmental laws and regulations is expensive, and current or future environmental regulations may impair our research, development, and production efforts, which could harm our business, prospects, financial condition, and results of operations.

Product liability lawsuits against us could cause us to incur substantial liabilities and could limit commercialization of any product candidate that we may develop.

We face an inherent risk of product liability exposure related to the testing of our current and any future product candidates in clinical trials and may face an even greater risk if we commercialize any product candidate that we may develop. If we cannot successfully defend ourselves against claims that any such product candidates caused injuries, we could incur substantial liabilities. Regardless of merit or eventual outcome, liability claims may result in:

decreased demand for any product candidate that we may develop;
product recalls, withdrawals or labeling, marketing or promotional restrictions;
loss of revenue;
substantial monetary awards to trial participants or patients;
significant time and costs to defend the related litigation;
a diversion of management’s time and our resources;
withdrawal of clinical trial participants;
initiation of investigations by regulators;
the inability to commercialize any product candidate that we may develop;
injury to our reputation and significant negative media attention; and
a decline in our ADS price.

We currently hold approximately $10.0 million in product liability insurance coverage in the aggregate. We may need to increase our insurance coverage as we expand our clinical trials and if we successfully commercialize any product candidate. Insurance coverage is increasingly expensive. We may not be able to obtain or maintain insurance coverage at a reasonable cost or in an amount adequate to satisfy any liability that may arise. Although we will maintain such insurance, any claim that may be brought against us could result in a court judgment or settlement in an amount that is not covered, in whole or in part, by our insurance or that is in excess of the limits of our insurance coverage. Our insurance policies will also have various exclusions, and we may be subject to a product liability claim for which we have no coverage. We may have to pay any amounts awarded by a court or negotiated in a settlement that exceed our coverage limitations or that are not covered by our insurance, and we may not have, or be able to obtain, sufficient capital to pay such amounts.

If our information technology systems or data, or those of third parties upon which we rely, are or were compromised or experienced significant disruptions of our information technology systems or data security incidents, we could experience adverse consequences including but not limited to significant financial, legal, regulatory, business and reputational harm; litigation; fines and penalties; disruptions of our business operations; loss of revenue or profits; loss of customers or sales; or other adverse consequences.

We are increasingly dependent on information technology systems and infrastructure, including mobile and third-party, cloud-based technologies, to operate our business. In the ordinary course of our business, we may collect, store, process and transmit large amounts of sensitive information, including intellectual property, proprietary business information, personal information and other confidential information. It is critical that we

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do so in a secure manner to maintain the confidentiality, integrity and availability of such sensitive information. We have also outsourced elements of our operations (including elements of our information technology infrastructure) to third parties, and as a result, we manage a number of third-party vendors who may or could have access to our computer networks or our sensitive information. In addition, many of those third parties in turn subcontract or outsource some of their responsibilities to third parties. While all information technology operations are inherently vulnerable to inadvertent or intentional security breaches, incidents, attacks and exposures, the accessibility and distributed nature of our information technology systems, and the sensitive information stored on or transmitted between those systems, make such systems potentially vulnerable to unintentional or malicious, internal and external exploits of our technology environment, including by organized groups and individuals with a wide range of motives (including, but not limited to, industrial espionage) and expertise, including organized criminal groups, “hacktivists,” nation states and others. Further, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we enabled all of our employees to work remotely, which may make us more vulnerable to cyberattacks. Cyberattacks are increasing in their frequency, levels of persistence, sophistication and intensity, and are being conducted by organized groups and individuals with a wide range of motives (including, but not limited to, industrial espionage) and expertise, including organized criminal groups, “hacktivists,” nation states and others. In addition to the extraction of sensitive information, such attacks could include the deployment of harmful malware, ransomware, supply chain attacks, denial-of-service attacks, social engineering and other means to affect service reliability and threaten the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information. Data security incidents and other inappropriate access can also be difficult to detect, can result from the intentional or inadvertent actions or inactions of those with authorized access to our network and any delay in identifying them may lead to increased harm. In addition, the prevalent use of mobile devices increases the risk of data security incidents.

Significant disruptions of, or cyber incidents directed at, our or our third-party vendors’ and/or business partners’ information technology systems could adversely affect our business operations and/or result in the loss, misappropriation, and/or unauthorized access, use or disclosure of, or the prevention of access to, sensitive information, which could result in a variety of adverse effects, including financial, legal, regulatory, business and reputational harm to us. In addition, information technology system disruptions, whether from attacks on our technology environment or from computer viruses, natural disasters, terrorism, war and telecommunication and electrical failures, could result in a material disruption of our development programs and our business operations. For example, the loss of clinical trial data from completed or future clinical trials could result in delays in our marketing approval efforts and significantly increase our costs to recover or reproduce the data. Additionally, theft of our intellectual property or proprietary business information could require substantial expenditures to remedy. If we or our third-party collaborators, consultants, contractors, suppliers, vendors or service providers were to suffer an actual or likely attack or breach, for example, that involves the unauthorized access to or use or disclosure of personal or health information for which we are responsible may require us, we may have to notify consumers, partners, collaborators, government authorities, and the media, and may be subject to investigations, civil penalties, administrative and enforcement actions (including mandatory corrective action or requirements to verify the correctness of database contents), and consuming, distracting and expensive litigation, any of which could result in increased costs to us, and result in significant legal and financial exposure, or other harm to our business and reputation.

We and certain of our service providers are from time to time subject to cyberattacks and security incidents. While we have no reason to believe that we have been subject to any significant system failure, accident or security breach to date, attackers have become very sophisticated in the way they conceal access to systems, and many companies that have been attacked are not aware that they have been attacked. We may also experience security breaches that may remain undetected for an extended period. Even if identified, we may be unable to adequately investigate or remediate incidents or breaches due to attackers increasingly using tools and techniques that are designed to circumvent controls, to avoid detection, and to remove or obfuscate forensic evidence. While we have implemented security measures intended to protect our information technology systems and infrastructure, such measures may not successfully prevent service interruptions or security incidents.

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Our contracts may not contain limitations of liability, and even where they do, there can be no assurance that limitations of liability in our contracts are sufficient to protect us from liabilities, damages, or claims related to our data privacy and security obligations. We cannot be sure that our insurance coverage will be adequate or sufficient to protect us from or to mitigate liabilities arising out of our privacy and security practices, that such coverage will continue to be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all, or that such coverage will pay future claims.

Our employees, principal investigators, consultants and commercial partners may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including non-compliance with regulatory standards and requirements and insider trading.

We are exposed to the risk of fraud or other misconduct by our employees, principal investigators, consultants and commercial partners. Misconduct by these parties could include intentional failures to comply with FDA regulations or the regulations applicable in other jurisdictions, provide accurate information to the FDA and applicable foreign authorities, comply with healthcare fraud and abuse laws and regulations in the United States and abroad, report financial information or data accurately or disclose unauthorized activities to us. In particular, sales, marketing and business arrangements in the healthcare industry are subject to extensive laws and regulations intended to prevent fraud, misconduct, kickbacks, self-dealing and other abusive practices. These laws and regulations restrict or prohibit a wide range of pricing, discounting, marketing and promotion, sales commission, customer incentive programs and other business arrangements. Such misconduct also could involve the improper use of information obtained in the course of clinical trials or interactions with the FDA or applicable foreign authorities, which could result in regulatory sanctions and cause serious harm to our reputation. It is not always possible to identify and deter employee misconduct, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting us from government investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to comply with these laws or regulations. If any such actions are instituted against us and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could have a negative impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, including the imposition of significant fines or other sanctions.

Governments outside the United States tend to impose strict price controls, which may adversely affect our revenues, if any.

In some countries, the pricing of prescription pharmaceuticals is subject to governmental control. In these countries, pricing negotiations with governmental authorities can take considerable time after the receipt of marketing approval for a product candidate. In addition, there can be considerable pressure by governments and other stakeholders on prices and reimbursement levels, including as part of cost containment measures. Political, economic and regulatory developments may further complicate pricing negotiations, and pricing negotiations may continue after coverage and reimbursement have been obtained. Reference pricing used by various countries and parallel distribution or arbitrage between low-priced and high-priced countries, can further reduce prices. To obtain reimbursement or pricing approval in some countries, we may be required to conduct a clinical trial that compares the cost-effectiveness of our product candidate to other available therapies, which is time-consuming and costly. If coverage and reimbursement of our product candidates are unavailable or limited in scope or amount, or if pricing is set at unsatisfactory levels, our business could be harmed, possibly materially.

We are subject to stringent and evolving U.S. and foreign laws, regulations, rules, industry standards, contractual obligations, policies and other obligations related to data security and privacy. Our actual or perceived failure to comply with such obligations could lead to government enforcement actions, which could include civil, criminal or administrative penalties, litigation (including class claims) and arbitration demands, fines and penalties, disruptions of our business operations, reputational harm, adverse publicity, and/or and other adverse business consequences and could negatively affect our operating results and business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

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In the ordinary course of business, we collect, receive, store, process, generate, use, transfer, disclose, make accessible, protect, secure, dispose of, transmit, and share (collectively, processing) personal data and other sensitive information, including proprietary and confidential business data, trade secrets, intellectual property, data we may collect about trial participants in connection with clinical trials, sensitive third-party data, business plans, transactions, and financial information.

The global data protection landscape is rapidly evolving, and we are or may become subject to or be affected by evolving federal, state and foreign data protection laws and regulations, such as laws and regulations that address privacy and data security. In the United States, numerous federal and state laws and regulations, including federal and state health information privacy laws, state data breach notification laws, and federal and state consumer protection laws, such as Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act, govern the collection, use, disclosure and protection of health information and other personal information and could apply to our operations. These laws and regulations are subject to differing interpretations and may be inconsistent among jurisdictions, and guidance on implementation and compliance practices are often updated or otherwise revised, which adds to the complexity of processing personal information. HIPAA, as amended by HITECH, imposes, among other things, certain standards relating to the privacy, security, transmission and breach reporting of individually identifiable health information. We do not believe that we are currently acting as a covered entity or business associate under HIPAA and thus are not directly subject to its requirements or penalties. However, we may obtain health information from third parties, including research institutions from which we obtain clinical trial data, that are subject to privacy and security requirements under HIPAA. Depending on the facts and circumstances, we could face substantial criminal penalties if we knowingly receive individually identifiable health information from a HIPAA-covered healthcare provider or research institution that has not satisfied HIPAA’s requirements for disclosure of individually identifiable health information.

In the past few years, numerous U.S. states—including California, Virginia, Colorado, Connecticut, and Utah—have enacted comprehensive privacy laws that impose certain obligations on covered businesses, including providing specific disclosures in privacy notices and affording residents with certain rights concerning their personal data. As applicable, such rights may include the right to access, correct, or delete certain personal data, and to opt-out of certain data processing activities, such as targeted advertising, profiling, and automated decision-making. The exercise of these rights may impact our business and ability to provide our products and services.

Certain states also impose stricter requirements for processing certain personal data, including sensitive information, such as conducting data privacy impact assessments. These state laws allow for statutory fines for noncompliance. For example, the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, as amended by the California Privacy Rights Act of 2020 (“CPRA”), (collectively, “CCPA”) applies to personal data of consumers, business representatives, and employees who are California residents, and requires businesses to provide specific disclosures in privacy notices and honor requests of such individuals to exercise certain privacy rights. The CCPA provides for fines of up to $7,500 per intentional violation and allows private litigants affected by certain data breaches to recover significant statutory damages. Although the CCPA exempts some data processed in the context of clinical trials, the CCPA increases compliance costs and potential liability with respect to other personal data we maintain about California residents. Similar laws are being considered in several other states, as well as at the federal and local levels, and we expect more states to pass similar laws in the future. While these states, like the CCPA, also exempt some data processed in the context of clinical trials, these developments further complicate compliance efforts, and increase legal risk and compliance costs for us, the third parties upon whom we rely.

Outside the United States, an increasing number of laws, regulations, and industry standards may govern data privacy and security. For example, the EU GDPR, the United Kingdom’s GDPR (“UK GDPR”), and the Personal Information Protection Act in South Korea, impose strict requirements for processing personal data. Under the EU GDPR, companies may face temporary or definitive bans on data processing and other corrective actions; fines of up to 20 million Euros or 4% of annual global revenue, whichever is greater; or private litigation related to processing of personal data brought by classes of data subjects or consumer protection organizations authorized at law to represent their interests.

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In the ordinary course of business, we may transfer personal data from Europe and other jurisdictions to the United States or other countries. Europe and other jurisdictions have enacted laws requiring data to be localized or limiting the transfer of personal data to other countries. Other jurisdictions may adopt similarly stringent interpretations of their data localization and cross-border data transfer laws. Although there are currently various mechanisms that may be used to transfer personal data from the European Economic Area (“EEA”) and United Kingdom (“UK”) to the United States in compliance with law, such as the EEA and UK’s standard contractual clauses, these mechanisms are subject to legal challenges, and there is no assurance that we can satisfy or rely on these measures to lawfully transfer personal data to the United States. Recently, however, the UK has implemented an International Data Transfer Agreement/Addendum and the EU-U.S. Data Privacy Framework has been introduced, (the latter of which allows for transfers of personal data for relevant U.S.-based organizations who self-certify compliance and participate in the Framework), but these mechanisms are subject to legal challenges, and there is no assurance that we can satisfy or rely on these measures to lawfully transfer personal data to the United States.

If there is no lawful manner for us to transfer personal data from the EEA, the UK or other jurisdictions to the United States, or if the requirements for a legally-compliant transfer are too onerous, we could face significant adverse consequences, including the interruption or degradation of our operations, the need to relocate part of or all of our business or data processing activities to other jurisdictions at significant expense, increased exposure to regulatory actions, substantial fines and penalties, the inability to transfer data and work with partners, vendors and other third parties, and injunctions against our processing or transferring of personal data necessary to operate our business. Additionally, companies that transfer personal data out of the EEA and UK to other jurisdictions, particularly to the United States, are subject to increased scrutiny from regulators, individual litigants, and activist groups. Some European regulators have ordered certain companies to suspend or permanently cease certain transfers out of Europe for allegedly violating the GDPR’s cross-border data transfer limitations.

The EU has also proposed a Regulation on Privacy and Electronic Communications (“ePrivacy Regulation”) which, if adopted, would impose new obligations on the use of personal data in the context of electronic communications, particularly with respect to online tracking technologies and direct marketing. Additionally, the EU adopted the EU Clinical Trials Regulation, which came into effect on January 31, 2022. This regulation imposes new obligations on the use of data generated from clinical trials and enables European patients to have the opportunity to access information about clinical trials.

The Cayman Islands Data Protection Act imposes obligations on data controllers in relation to the processing of personal data, and also introduced rights for data subjects (which may be subject to various exemptions), including, among others: (a) personal data must be processed fairly and on the basis of one of the grounds for processing as set out in the Data Protection Act; (b) personal data must be obtained for a specified lawful purpose; (c) personal data must be adequate, relevant and not excessive in relation to the purpose for which it was processed; (d) personal data must be accurate and, where necessary, kept up to date; (e) personal data must not be kept for longer than is necessary; (f) personal data must be processed in accordance with the rights of the data subject; (g) appropriate technical and organizational security measures must be taken to prevent unauthorized or unlawful processing, accidental loss or destruction of personal data; and (h) the personal data may not be transferred to a country unless that country ensures an adequate level of protection for the rights and freedoms of data subjects.

In recent years, authorities of the PRC have promulgated certain laws and regulations in respect of information security, data collection and privacy protection regulations in the PRC, including the Cybersecurity Law of the PRC, the Provisions on Protection of Personal Information of Telecommunication and Internet Users, the Data Security Law of the PRC which became effective from September 1, 2021, and the Personal Information Protection Law of the PRC which became effective from November 1, 2021. Under the Personal Information Protection Law of the PRC, in case of any personal information processing, such individual prior consent shall be obtained, unless other circumstances clearly mentioned therein to the contrary. Further, any data processing activities in relation to the sensitive personal information such as biometrics, medical health and personal information of teenagers under fourteen years old are not allowed unless such activities have a specific purpose, are highly necessary and have taken strictly protective measures.

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In addition to data privacy and security laws, we contractually may be subject to industry standards adopted by industry groups and may become subject to such obligations in the future. We are also bound by contractual obligations related to data privacy and security, and our efforts to comply with such obligations may not be successful. In particular, compliance with U.S. and foreign data protection laws and regulations could require us to take on more onerous obligations in our contracts, increase our costs of legal compliance, restrict our ability to collect, use and disclose data, or in some cases, impact our or our partners’ suppliers’ ability to operate in certain jurisdictions. Our or our service providers’ and vendors’ actual or perceived failure to comply with U.S. and foreign data protection laws and regulations could result in threatened or actual government investigations and/or enforcement actions (which could include civil, criminal, and administrative penalties), private litigation and/or adverse publicity and could negatively affect our operating results and business. Moreover, clinical trial subjects about whom we or our potential collaborators obtain information, as well as the providers who share this information with us, may contractually limit our ability to use and disclose the information. Claims that we or our third-party service providers have violated individuals’ privacy rights, failed to comply with data protection laws, or breached our contractual obligations, even if we are not found liable, could be expensive and time consuming to defend and could result in adverse publicity that could harm our business.

We publish privacy policies, self-certifications, and other documentation regarding our collection, use and disclosure of personal information and/or other confidential information. Although we endeavor to comply with our published policies, certifications, and documentation, we may at times fail to do so or may be perceived to have failed to do so. Moreover, despite our efforts, we may not be successful in achieving compliance if our employees or vendors fail to comply with our published policies, certifications, and documentation. Such failures can subject us to potential international, local, state and federal action if they are found to be deceptive, unfair, or misrepresentative of our actual practices.

There is tax risk associated with the reporting of cross-border arrangements and activities between us and our subsidiaries.

We are incorporated under the laws of the Cayman Islands and currently have subsidiaries in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Australia, the Cayman Islands and the United States. If we succeed in growing our business, we expect to conduct increased operations through our subsidiaries in various tax jurisdictions pursuant to transfer pricing arrangements between us and our subsidiaries. If two or more affiliated companies are located in different countries, the tax laws or regulations of each country generally will require that transfer prices be the same as those between unrelated companies dealing at arms’ length and that appropriate documentation is maintained to support the transfer prices. While we believe that we operate in compliance with applicable transfer pricing laws and intend to continue to do so, our transfer pricing procedures are not binding on applicable tax authorities.

If tax authorities in any of these countries were to successfully challenge our transfer prices as not reflecting arms’ length transactions, they could require us to adjust our transfer prices and thereby reallocate our income to reflect these revised transfer prices, which could result in a higher tax liability to us. In addition, if the country from which the income is reallocated does not agree with the reallocation, both countries could tax the same income, resulting in double taxation. If tax authorities were to allocate income to a higher tax jurisdiction, subject our income to double taxation or assess interest and penalties, it would increase our consolidated tax liability, wh